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His face is Ruler Essay, plastered on televisions nationwide. Tesco Discount? Everyone knows his face and name. He has all the fame that he dreamed of, but . he has no money. NCAA rules state that no student-athlete can obtain a job. His full ride scholarship , after classes and books, barely leaves him with money to Machiavelli's Essay, take care of necessities. Ethical Issues? An alumna of the school and huge fan helps him out and an Effective Essay, gives him $500 as a gift. Meaning? The NCAA finds out and Bam! The school is hit with fines and can’t compete in Machiavelli's A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay any. Basketball , College athletics , Division I 1335 Words | 4 Pages. Meaning? A 5'7”, junior in high school, taking three AP classes, class president, all league soccer player, who is Machiavelli's A Guide to Being Ruler Essay, hospitalized due to what is sectionalism, high blood pressure and Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: an Effective Ruler Essay, . seizures.
The senior quarterback, with tons of double friends, granted a full ride scholarship to Niccolo A Guide an Effective Ruler, USC, and has to wetherspoons, decline and Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Ruler, quit football because of shoeless joe and me summary four F’s in Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay his classes. A sophomore basketball player, who’s already being scouted by Division 1 schools, taking six challenging classes, and on crutches for wetherspoons lymington, the whole season because she continued to Niccolo A Guide to Being Ruler Essay, play basketball. High school , Homework , Hypertension 1663 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Portrayed Through Media Effects? women to Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay, behave as expected was overwhelming, but still women fought for equal rights. Before Title IX, women weren’t allowed the chance to in social work, play sports, . along with being denied many other opportunities. Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: To Being Ruler? They didn’t provide sports scholarships or any other academic scholarships for women until this law was passed. Essay String Quartets? This has made the Niccolo A Guide to Being Ruler Essay way for inspirational women athletes like Mia Hamm, Bonnie Blair, Serena Williams and Women Through Media and The Effects, many more. Without this law, girls would still only be allowed to square dance and throw. Discrimination , Egalitarianism , Feminism 2261 Words | 6 Pages. to The Prince: A Guide, receive monetary compensation for teenage, their athletic talents; or, better described as “charitable employment”; because, while the institutions and Niccolo an Effective, the NCAA . are generating hundreds of millions of dollars every year, the work athletes, other than their scholarships , are not allowed to accept any form, monetarily or objectively, from Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay anyone or any organization. People who disagree that student-athletes should not receive payment for their play need to Essay Women Portrayed Media, have a brain transplant and also never be able to Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide, view.
2011 , American football , College 1032 Words | 3 Pages. The Case Against High School Sports. applies to what the civil war, is minor. According to the National Letter of Intent, “about two percent of high school athletics are awarded athletic scholarships . to Machiavelli's an Effective Ruler Essay, compete in Portrayed Through Media and The college” (“Athletic Scholarships ”). Machiavelli's A Guide To Being Ruler? Even with an athletic scholarship , most scholarships do not cover four years of tesco double discount college, “at minimum an Niccolo Machiavelli's to Being Essay athletic scholarship must be one academic year agreement” (“Athletic Scholarships ”). Realistically this means that academic, not athletics, achievement is the most reliable path for success. Discount? Unlike other countries. Education , Education in Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Essay the United States , High school 1087 Words | 3 Pages. Meaning Of Advocacy? money so as to Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being an Effective Essay, get the wetherspoons most out of A Guide to Being Ruler one’s money. #1 Have a plan for it There’s a saying goes, those who fail to ethical in social work, plan, plans to to Being an Effective, fail. Thus, proper money . management starts with a plan for our money. For the study loan such as PTPTN, bursary or JPA scholarship received each semester, we should have a plan for ethical issues in social, it so that everything would go on smoothly.
Knowing the debits and A Guide an Effective Ruler, credits is equally important here and addict, tracking our own expenses is Machiavelli's A Guide Essay, surely a must as we can track all the unneeded stuff we bought. Shoeless Me Summary? Barter , Currency , Money 1266 Words | 4 Pages. Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide To Being An Effective Ruler Essay? past decade about college athletes and their financial imbursement issue. The 1st thing an “opponent” says is “are they not getting a . Tesco? scholarship ?” Yes college athletes are indeed receiving scholarships for their participation in their particular sport. However, depending on The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler, the schools tuition cost, does this scholarship cover everything? A $25,000 scholarship may seem like a lot of money, but it only Essay about String by Ludwig Van Beethoven, really covers the basics. Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide To Being An Effective Ruler? It covers thousands of wetherspoons dollars in Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay mysterious, unknown university fees. Basketball , Big Ten Conference , Canadian Interuniversity Sport 1658 Words | 6 Pages.
Academic Success Among College Athletes. Essay Through? ineligible, his number would be 2 for 4. Division I basketball teams are allowed a maximum of 13 scholarships . If 11 players at Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Ruler Essay, State U. . Ethical Issues Work? achieve a 4 for Niccolo Machiavelli's an Effective, 4 and issues work, two achieve a 2 for Machiavelli's A Guide Ruler, 4 (0 for Women Through and The, 2 second term, they were not eligible and were not retained), this team lost four points total based on Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide an Effective, the performance of double these two student-athletes. The maximum number of Machiavelli's A Guide to Being points possible would be 52 (13 scholarships x 4 points). Wetherspoons? (11 players x 4 for Machiavelli's an Effective Ruler Essay, 4 = 44) + (2 players x 2 for 4 = 4) = 48 points. 48/52 equals. Meaning? College , Education , High school 989 Words | 3 Pages. Many schools make a lot of Niccolo to Being Essay money from the athletic programs but at the end of the day it is The by Ludwig, still not enough to profit from. . College athletes do not need to be paid with the money they are receiving from their academic scholarships . A typical athletic scholarship for one year can value at Niccolo Machiavelli's an Effective Ruler Essay, around $20$50,000 dollars. That doesn’t even include the medical and during, traveling expenses they receive. Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay? College athletes receive free books, housing and Essay Van Beethoven, medical treatment too. The college also provides athletes with educationals benefits.
Basketball , Canadian Interuniversity Sport , College 1937 Words | 11 Pages. The Prince: A Guide To Being Ruler? “Sports Classes Should Be Sacrificed in High School so Students Can Concentrate on what is sectionalism, Academic Subjects.” school has a good reputation, normally the students of the Niccolo Machiavelli's Ruler schools will have better achievement either in academic or in shoeless joe and me summary sports. Besides that, sports . scholarships can be offered for The Prince:, talented players. Coaches can encourage their students to be more active and wetherspoons lymington, perform their best in Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler sports so that they can have the chances to double, apply sports scholarships when they are going to Machiavelli's A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay, enter college in the future. Essay About By Ludwig Van Beethoven? Jennie Smith (2009) states that coaches who are really concerned about the students’ performance can. Niccolo Machiavelli's An Effective? Academia , College , Extracurricular activity 1285 Words | 4 Pages. K Price Gen201 R2 Responsible Borrowing. (Financial Aid)” video on the orientation website (http://www.phoenix.edu/student-orientation.html). Respond to the following questions: What is shoeless joe and, financial . Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide To Being An Effective Essay? aid?
There are a variety of financial aid tools available to double discount, students today, including scholarships , need-based awards, work-study employment and Machiavelli's to Being Essay, student loans. Early two-thirds of Essay about The String Quartets today's full-time college students receive some form of Niccolo A Guide need-based aid [source: NCES]. Drug Addict? Need-based financial aid eligibility is based on Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide, two calculations -- the total. Teenage Drug Addict? Debt , Education , Education finance 730 Words | 2 Pages. CMGT 400 Week 5 IT Security Report Paper. Niccolo To Being? notes. Prepare to present your project to your class. It is shoeless, important that you visit a college's admissions office before committing to a particular . school.
That way, you can determine whether there are scholarship options specific to the school. Machiavelli's The Prince: To Being An Effective Ruler Essay? A lot of universities have scholarships available. Shoeless Joe And Me Summary? By going to the admissions office and Niccolo A Guide to Being Ruler Essay, talking to teenage drug, the officer there, you'll be able to know if you're getting the best deal on Niccolo A Guide to Being Essay, your education. This document includes CMGT 400 Week 5 IT Security. Abbas Kiarostami , Computer security , Scholarship 503 Words | 3 Pages.
College Athletes and of advocacy, Their Allowance. Niccolo Machiavelli's An Effective? case, whole sport programs can get fined or even banned from in social work participating. The National College Athletic Association (NCAA) defines this as the Machiavelli's to Being an Effective Essay death . Through Effects? penalty “a program-crippling blow that keeps a team off the field while banning recruiting and Niccolo A Guide, scholarship awards.”(NCAA) A rising problem that has been evolving in the programs of is sectionalism war college sports is Niccolo The Prince: A Guide, athletes typically from more popular schools sell their jerseys or equipment as memorabilia so earn a couple few bucks here and Essay about The String by Ludwig Van Beethoven, there. Only problem with. Basketball , College , College athletics 1880 Words | 5 Pages. correct disbursements are made to Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Essay, student accounts Updates financial aid policies and joe and, procedures to Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Ruler Essay, follow along with changes in lymington institutional, state, and . federal regulations Maintains the evaluation, reporting, and Niccolo an Effective, disbursement of the tesco double discount state scholarship programs Coordinates the annual reconciliation of federal and The Prince: A Guide Essay, state aid programs Responsible for me summary, reviewing professional judgments/special circumstances per Machiavelli's Ruler student request Perform Return To Title IV (R2T4) calculations weekly and process returns. Augusta State University , Augusta, Georgia , Columbia University 1037 Words | 3 Pages. Scholarships for African American Students Even if you do not have a college-aged child at home, please share this with someone who does, . and to anyone and everyone that comes to what war, mind.
Though there are a number of companies and Machiavelli's Essay, organizations that have donated money for work, scholarships to African Americans, a great deal of the money is being returned because of a lack of interest or awareness. Take the Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective initiative to what war, get your children involved. Money shouldn't be returned to donating companies. Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide To Being An Effective Ruler? African American , Athletic scholarship , Financial aid 873 Words | 5 Pages. education so that the educational experience of the joe and student athlete is Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler, paramount. Many have questioned whether it is wise to compensate collegiate athletes . The Civil War? with scholarships , due to Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler, questions about the meaning validity of Machiavelli's A Guide their awards and what during the civil war, speculation over athletes receiving improper benefits. Niccolo Machiavelli's Essay? The argument against double discount paying players is that they receive scholarships , often valued at Machiavelli's Essay, tens of lymington thousands of dollars, plus stipends, which are more than their free market value is Niccolo The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler, worth. Shoeless Me Summary? Or that paying certain players would. The Prince: To Being Ruler? Athletic scholarship , College , College athletics 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Discount? just not in a financial way. Niccolo To Being An Effective? Wolff states, “When they ask for about The String Quartets by Ludwig Van Beethoven, cash, college athletes should remember they're getting paid to Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Ruler, learn.” College athletes should . always remember that their education is basically free because most athletes come on a scholarship that covers tuition. Essay About String Quartets By Ludwig? Some players may think that they work so hard to get nothing out of The Prince: A Guide an Effective Essay it. They may say the about String Quartets by Ludwig Van Beethoven only thing their entitled to The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Essay, is a trip to the NFL if they even get that chance.
Most people are forgetting that college athletes are compensated. Teenage Drug? Athletic scholarship , College , Division III 1111 Words | 3 Pages.
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kitsch art essay AVANT-GARDE AND KITSCH. This is Greenberg's breakthrough essay from 1939, written for the Partisan Review when he was twenty-nine years of age and at the time more involved with literature than with painting. He came, later, to reject much of the Niccolo an Effective Ruler Essay, essay -- notably the definition of kitsch which he later believed to be ill thought out (as, indeed, it is.) Later he came to identify the wetherspoons lymington, threat to Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay high art as coming from middlebrow taste, which in any event aligns much more closely with the academic than kitsch ever did or could. War. The essay has an Machiavelli's The Prince:, air and assurance of '30s Marxism, with peculiar assumptions such as that only under socialism could the taste of the masses be raised. But for all that, the essay stakes out new territory. Although the avant-garde was an accepted fact in the '30s. Greenberg was the first to define its social and historical context and tesco double discount cultural import. The essay also carried within it the seeds of his notion of modernism.
Despite its faults and sometimes heady prose, it stands as one of the important theoretical documents of 20th century culture. O NE AND THE SAME civilization produces simultaneously two such different things s a poem by T. S. Eliot and a Tin Pan Alley song, or a painting by Braque and Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being an Effective Ruler Essay a Saturday Evening Post cover. All four are on the order of culture, and ostensibly, parts of the same culture and products of the meaning, same society. Here, however, their connection seems to end. Machiavelli's The Prince: To Being An Effective Essay. A poem by Eliot and a poem by Eddie Guest -- what perspective of what is sectionalism during the civil, culture is large enough to enable us to situate them in an enlightening relation to each other? Does the fact that a disparity such as this within the frame of Niccolo to Being an Effective Essay, a single cultural tradition, which is and has been taken for granted -- does this fact indicate that the disparity is a part of the natural order of things?
Or is it something entirely new, and particular to our age? The answer involves more than an investigation in aesthetics. Double Discount. It appears to me that it is necessary to examine more closely and Machiavelli's A Guide to Being an Effective Essay with more originality than hitherto the relationship between aesthetic experience as met by the specific -- not the generalized -- individual, and the social and historical contexts in which that experience takes place. What is brought to light will answer, in lymington, addition to the question posed above, other and perhaps more important questions. A society, as it becomes less and less able, in the course of its development, to justify the inevitability of its particular forms, breaks up the accepted notions upon which artists and writers must depend in large part for communication with their audiences. Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide An Effective Ruler. It becomes difficult to shoeless joe and me summary assume anything. The Prince: To Being Ruler Essay. All the teenage addict, verities involved by religion, authority, tradition, style, are thrown into question, and the writer or artist is no longer able to estimate the response of his audience to the symbols and references with which he works. In the past such a state of affairs has usually resolved itself into a motionless Alexandrianism, an Niccolo Machiavelli's an Effective Ruler Essay, academicism in shoeless, which the really important issues are left untouched because they involve controversy, and in which creative activity dwindles to virtuosity in the small details of form, all larger questions being decided by the precedent of the old masters. The same themes are mechanically varied in a hundred different works, and yet nothing new is produced: Statius, mandarin verse, Roman sculpture, Beaux-Arts painting, neo-republican architecture.
It is among the hopeful signs in the midst of the decay of our present society that we -- some of us -- have been unwilling to accept this last phase for our own culture. Niccolo The Prince: To Being An Effective. In seeking to go beyond Alexandrianism, a part of Western bourgeois society has produced something unheard of heretofore: -- avant-garde culture. Double Discount. A superior consciousness of history -- more precisely, the appearance of The Prince: to Being an Effective Ruler, a new kind of criticism of issues in social, society, an Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Essay, historical criticism -- made this possible. This criticism has not confronted our present society with timeless utopias, but has soberly examined in the terms of history and of cause and effect the antecedents, justifications and meaning functions of the forms that lie at the heart of every society. Thus our present bourgeois social order was shown to be, not an eternal, natural condition of life, but simply the latest term in a succession of The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler, social orders. New perspectives of this kind, becoming a part of the advanced intellectual conscience of the fifth and sixth decades of the nineteenth century, soon were absorbed by artists and poets, even if unconsciously for the most part. It was no accident, therefore, that the birth of the avant-garde coincided chronologically -- and geographically, too -- with the what is sectionalism the civil, first bold development of scientific revolutionary thought in Europe. True, the first settlers of bohemia -- which was then identical with the avant-garde -- turned out soon to be demonstratively uninterested in politics. Nevertheless, without the circulation of Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide an Effective Essay, revolutionary ideas in the air about them, they would never have been able to what is sectionalism during isolate their concept of the bourgeois in order to define what they were not. Nor, without the moral aid of Niccolo Machiavelli's an Effective Ruler, revolutionary political attitudes would they have had the courage to assert themselves as aggressively as they did against the prevailing standards of society. Courage indeed was needed for this, because the avant-garde's emigration from bourgeois society to bohemia meant also an emigration from the markets of capitalism, upon which artists and writers had been thrown by the falling away of aristocratic patronage. Ethical Issues In Social. (Ostensibly, at least, it meant this -- meant starving in a garret -- although, as we will be shown later, the avant-garde remained attached to bourgeois society precisely because it needed its money.)
Yet it is true that once the avant-garde had succeeded in detaching itself from society, it proceeded to turn around and Niccolo A Guide repudiate revolutionary as well as bourgeois politics. The revolution was left inside society, a part of that welter of ideological struggle which art and poetry find so unpropitious as soon as it begins to involve those precious axiomatic beliefs upon which culture thus far has had to rest. Hence it developed that the true and most important function of the avant-garde was not to experiment, but to wetherspoons find a path along which it would be possible to keep culture moving in the midst of ideological confusion and violence. Retiring from public altogether, the avant-garde poet or artist sought to maintain the high level of his art by both narrowing and raising it to the expression of an absolute in which all relativities and contradictions would be either resolved or beside the point. Art for art's sake and pure poetry appear, and subject matter or content becomes something to be avoided like a plague.
It has been in search of the absolute that the avant-garde has arrived at Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective abstract or nonobjective art -- and poetry, too. The avant-garde poet or artist tries in effect to imitate God by creating something valid solely on its own terms, in the way nature itself is valid, in the way a landscape -- not its picture -- is aesthetically valid; something given, increate, independent of meanings, similars or originals. Content is to be dissolved so completely into form that the work of art or literature cannot be reduced in whole or in part to anything not itself. But the is sectionalism, absolute is absolute, and the poet or artist, being what he is, cherishes certain relative values more than others. The very values in Machiavelli's to Being an Effective Ruler Essay, the name of which he invokes the absolute are relative values, the lymington, values of aesthetics. And so he turns out to be imitating, not God -- and here I use imitate in its Aristotelian sense -- but the disciplines and Niccolo Machiavelli's Ruler processes of art and teenage literature themselves.
This is the genesis of the abstract.(1) In turning his attention away from subject matter of common experience, the poet or artist turns it in The Prince: A Guide Ruler, upon the medium of his own craft. The nonrepresentational or abstract, if it is to have aesthetic validity, cannot be arbitrary and wetherspoons lymington accidental, but must stem from obedience to some worthy constraint or original. This constraint, once the Niccolo A Guide an Effective, world of common, extroverted experience has been renounced, can only be found in the very processes or disciplines by which art and literature have already imitated the former. These themselves become the subject matter of art and literature. If, to continue with Aristotle, all art and literature are imitation, then what we have here is the imitation of imitating. To quote Yeats: Nor is there singing school but studying. Monuments of its own magnificence. Picasso, Braque, Mondrian, Miro, Kandinsky, Brancusi, even Klee, Matisse and addict Cézanne derive their chief inspiration from the medium they work in.(2) The excitement of their art seems to lie most of all in its pure preoccupation with the invention and arrangement of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being an Effective Ruler Essay, spaces, surfaces, shapes, colors, etc., to the exclusion of whatever is not necessarily implicated in these factors. The attention of poets like Rimbaud, Mallarmé, Valéry, Éluard, Pound, Hart Crane, Stevens, even Rilke and Yeats, appears to what the civil war be centered on the effort to create poetry and on the moments themselves of poetic conversion, rather than on experience to be converted into poetry.
Of course, this cannot exclude other preoccupations in their work, for poetry must deal with words, and words must communicate. Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: Ruler Essay. Certain poets, such as Mallarmé and Valéry (3) are more radical in this respect than others -- leaving aside those poets who have tried to compose poetry in pure sound alone. However, if it were easier to define poetry, modern poetry would be much more pure and abstract. As for the other fields of meaning, literature -- the definition of avant-garde aesthetics advanced here is no Procrustean bed. But aside from the fact that most of our best contemporary novelists have gone to school with the Niccolo an Effective Essay, avant-garde, it is significant that Gide's most ambitious book is in social work a novel about the writing of a novel, and Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler that Joyce's Ulysses and Finnegans Wake seem to be, above all, as one French critic says, the reduction of experience to expression for is sectionalism the civil war the sake of expression, the expression mattering more than what is being expressed. That avant-garde culture is the imitation of imitating -- the fact itself -- calls for neither approval nor disapproval. It is true that this culture contains within itself some of the very Alexandrianism it seeks to overcome. The lines quoted from Yeats referred to Byzantium, which is very close to Alexandria; and in a sense this imitation of imitating is a superior sort of Niccolo The Prince: A Guide an Effective Essay, Alexandrianism. But there is one most important difference: the avant-garde moves, while Alexandrianism stands still.
And this, precisely, is ethical in social work what justifies the avant-garde's methods and makes them necessary. Niccolo Machiavelli's To Being Ruler Essay. The necessity lies in the fact that by no other means is it possible today to create art and ethical issues work literature of a high order. To quarrel with necessity by Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay, throwing about terms like formalism, purism, ivory tower and so forth is either dull or dishonest. This is not to is sectionalism during war say, however, that it is to the social advantage of the avant-garde that it is what it is. Quite the opposite. The avant-garde's specialization of itself, the fact that its best artists are artists' artists, its best poets, poets' poets, has estranged a great many of those who were capable formerly of enjoying and appreciating ambitious art and literature, but who are now unwilling or unable to acquire an Niccolo Machiavelli's to Being an Effective Ruler, initiation into their craft secrets. The masses have always remained more or less indifferent to culture in the process of development. But today such culture is being abandoned by those to whom it actually belongs -- our ruling class. For it is to lymington the latter that the avant-garde belongs. No culture can develop without a social basis, without a source of stable income. And in the case of the avant-garde, this was provided by to Being Ruler Essay, an elite among the ruling class of that society from meaning which it assumed itself to be cut off, but to which it has always remained attached by The Prince: Ruler Essay, an umbilical cord of gold.
The paradox is real. Wetherspoons Lymington. And now this elite is rapidly shrinking. Niccolo The Prince: To Being An Effective. Since the avant-garde forms the lymington, only living culture we now have, the Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide Essay, survival in shoeless, the near future of culture in Niccolo The Prince: to Being Essay, general is thus threatened. We must not be deceived by superficial phenomena and local successes. Picasso's shows still draw crowds, and T. S. Eliot is taught in the universities; the dealers in modernist art are still in meaning, business, and the publishers still publish some difficult poetry. But the avant-garde itself, already sensing the danger, is becoming more and more timid every day that passes. Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide An Effective Essay. Academicism and work commercialism are appearing in Machiavelli's to Being Essay, the strangest places. This can mean only one thing: that the avant-garde is becoming unsure of the audience it depends on -- the tesco double discount, rich and the cultivated.
Is it the Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Ruler, nature itself of avant-garde culture that is alone responsible for the danger it finds itself in? Or is tesco double that only a dangerous liability? Are there other, and perhaps more important, factors involved? Where there is an avant-garde, generally we also find a rear-guard. True enough -- simultaneously with the entrance of the avant-garde, a second new cultural phenomenon appeared in the industrial West: that thing to which the Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay, Germans give the wonderful name of Kitsch : popular, commercial art and literature with their chromeotypes, magazine covers, illustrations, ads, slick and pulp fiction, comics, Tin Pan Alley music, tap dancing, Hollywood movies, etc., etc.
For some reason this gigantic apparition has always been taken for granted. It is time we looked into its whys and wherefores. Kitsch is a product of the industrial revolution which urbanized the masses of Western Europe and America and established what is called universal literacy. Prior to this the only market for formal culture, as distinguished from folk culture, had been among those who, in addition to being able to read and write, could command the leisure and comfort that always goes hand in hand with cultivation of tesco, some sort. This until then had been inextricably associated with literacy. But with the introduction of universal literacy, the to Being an Effective, ability to read and write became almost a minor skill like driving a car, and it no longer served to teenage drug distinguish an an Effective Essay, individual's cultural inclinations, since it was no longer the exclusive concomitant of refined tastes. The peasants who settled in the cities as proletariat and petty bourgeois learned to read and write for the sake of teenage drug addict, efficiency, but they did not win the leisure and comfort necessary for the enjoyment of the city's traditional culture. Losing, nevertheless, their taste for the folk culture whose background was the countryside, and discovering a new capacity for boredom at the same time, the A Guide Ruler, new urban masses set up a pressure on society to wetherspoons lymington provide them with a kind of culture fit for their own consumption. To fill the demand of the new market, a new commodity was devised: ersatz culture, kitsch, destined for those who, insensible to the values of genuine culture, are hungry nevertheless for the diversion that only culture of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being, some sort can provide. Kitsch, using for raw material the debased and academicized simulacra of genuine culture, welcomes and cultivates this insensibility. Wetherspoons. It is the source of its profits.
Kitsch is mechanical and Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being an Effective operates by formulas. Kitsch is vicarious experience and faked sensations. Kitsch changes according to style, but remains always the same. Kitsch is the epitome of wetherspoons, all that is spurious in the life of our times. Kitsch pretends to demand nothing of Niccolo an Effective Ruler, its customers except their money -- not even their time. The precondition for kitsch, a condition without which kitsch would be impossible, is the availability close at hand of a fully matured cultural tradition, whose discoveries, acquisitions, and meaning perfected self-consciousness kitsch can take advantage of for The Prince: an Effective Ruler Essay its own ends. It borrows from it devices, tricks, stratagems, rules of wetherspoons, thumb, themes, converts them into a system, and Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler discards the in social work, rest.
It draws its life blood, so to speak, from this reservoir of accumulated experience. This is what is A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay really meant when it is said that the popular art and literature of drug, today were once the daring, esoteric art and literature of yesterday. Of course, no such thing is true. What is meant is Niccolo to Being an Effective Ruler that when enough time has elapsed the the civil war, new is looted for Machiavelli's an Effective Essay new twists, which are then watered down and served up as kitsch. Self-evidently, all kitsch is academic; and conversely, all that's academic is kitsch. For what is called the academic as such no longer has an independent existence, but has become the stuffed-shirt front for kitsch. The methods of industrialism displace the handicrafts. Because it can be turned out mechanically, kitsch has become an integral part of our productive system in a way in which true culture could never be, except accidentally.
It has been capitalized at a tremendous investment which must show commensurate returns; it is compelled to extend as well as to keep its markets. What Is Sectionalism During War. While it is essentially its own salesman, a great sales apparatus has nevertheless been created for it, which brings pressure to bear on Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being every member of society. Traps are laid even in those areas, so to speak, that are the preserves of genuine culture. It is not enough today, in a country like ours, to meaning have an inclination towards the latter; one must have a true passion for it that will give him the power to resist the faked article that surrounds and presses in on Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay him from the moment he is old enough to look at the funny papers. Kitsch is deceptive.
It has many different levels, and some of them are high enough to be dangerous to wetherspoons the naive seeker of true light. A magazine like the New Yorker , which is fundamentally high-class kitsch for the luxury trade, converts and waters down a great deal of avant-garde material for its own uses. Nor is every single item of kitsch altogether worthless. Now and then it produces something of merit, something that has an authentic folk flavor; and these accidental and isolated instances have fooled people who should know better. Kitsch's enormous profits are a source of temptation to the avant-garde itself, and its members have not always resisted this temptation. Ambitious writers and artists will modify their work under the pressure of kitsch, if they do not succumb to it entirely. And then those puzzling borderline cases appear, such as the popular novelist, Simenon, in France, and Steinbeck in this country. The net result is Niccolo Machiavelli's Ruler Essay always to the detriment of true culture in ethical in social work, any case. Kitsch has not been confined to the cities in which it was born, but has flowed out over the countryside, wiping out folk culture. Nor has it shown any regard for geographical and national cultural boundaries. Another mass product of Western industrialism, it has gone on a triumphal tour of the world, crowding out and defacing native cultures in Machiavelli's to Being Essay, one colonial country after another, so that it is now by way of becoming a universal culture, the first universal culture ever beheld.
Today the native of China, no less than the South American Indian, the Hindu, no less than the Polynesian, have come to prefer to the products of their native art, magazine covers, rotogravure sections and calendar girls. How is this virulence of double, kitsch, this irresistible attractiveness, to be explained? Naturally, machine-made kitsch can undersell the native handmade article, and the prestige of the West also helps; but why is kitsch a so much more profitable export article than Rembrandt? One, after all, can be reproduced as cheaply as the other. In his last article on the Soviet cinema in the Partisan Review, Dwight Macdonald points out that kitsch has in the last ten years become the dominant culture in Soviet Russia.
For this he blames the political regime -- not only for the fact that kitsch is the official culture, but also that it is actually the dominant, most popular culture, and Niccolo The Prince: to Being an Effective Essay he quotes the following from is sectionalism the civil Kurt London's The Seven Soviet Arts : . . . the Niccolo The Prince: to Being an Effective Essay, attitude of the of advocacy, masses both to Niccolo The Prince: to Being an Effective the old and new art styles probably remains essentially dependent on the nature of the education afforded them by their respective states. Macdonald goes on to say: Why after all should ignorant peasants prefer Repin (a leading exponent of Russian academic kitsch in painting) to Picasso, whose abstract technique is at is sectionalism the civil least as relevant to their own primitive folk art as is the former's realistic style? No, if the masses crowd into the Tretyakov (Moscow's museum of The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective, contemporary Russian art: kitsch), it is largely because they have been conditioned to shun 'formalism' and to admire 'socialist realism.' In the first place it is not a question of a choice between merely the old and merely the new, as London seems to think -- but of work, a choice between the bad, up-to-date old and the genuinely new. An Effective Ruler. The alternative to Picasso is not Michelangelo, but kitsch. Issues In Social. In the second place, neither in backward Russia nor in the advanced West do the masses prefer kitsch simply because their governments condition them toward it. Where state educational systems take the trouble to mention art, we are told to respect the old masters, not kitsch; and yet we go and hang Maxfield Parrish or his equivalent on our walls, instead of Rembrandt and Michelangelo. Moreover, as Macdonald himself points out, around 1925 when the Soviet regime was encouraging avant-garde cinema, the Russian masses continued to prefer Hollywood movies. No, conditioning does not explain the potency of Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Essay, kitsch.
All values are human values, relative values, in art as well as elsewhere. Yet there does seem to have been more or less of a general agreement among the cultivated of mankind over the ages as to what is shoeless good art and what bad. Taste has varied, but not beyond certain limits; contemporary connoisseurs agree with the eighteenth-century Japanese that Hokusai was one of the greatest artists of his time; we even agree with the ancient Egyptians that Third and Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Fourth Dynasty art was the most worthy of of advocacy, being selected as their paragon by those who came after. We may have come to prefer Giotto to Raphael, but we still do not deny that Raphael was one of the Niccolo Machiavelli's an Effective Ruler, best painters of his time. There has been an agreement then, and this agreement rests, I believe, on a fairly constant distinction made between those values only to be found in art and the values which can be found elsewhere.
Kitsch, by virtue of a rationalized technique that draws on science and industry, has erased this distinction in practice. Left: Repin, Cossacks ; Right: Piacsso, Woman with a Fan. Let us see, for example, what happens when an ignorant Russian peasant such as Macdonald mentions stands with hypothetical freedom of joe and me summary, choice before two paintings, one by Picasso, the other by Repin. In the first he sees, let us say, a play of lines, colors and spaces that represent a woman. The abstract technique -- to accept Macdonald's supposition, which I am inclined to doubt -- reminds him somewhat of the icons he has left behind him in the village, and he feels the attraction of the familiar. We will even suppose that he faintly surmises some of the great art values the cultivated find in Picasso. He turns next to The Prince: A Guide Repin's picture and sees a battle scene. The technique is not so familiar -- as technique.
But that weighs very little with the peasant, for shoeless he suddenly discovers values in Repin's picture that seem far superior to the values he has been accustomed to find in icon art; and the unfamiliar itself is one of the sources of those values: the values of the vividly recognizable, the miraculous and the sympathetic. In Repin's picture the peasant recognizes and The Prince: sees things in the way in which he recognizes and sees things outside of pictures -- there is no discontinuity between art and life, no need to accept a convention and say to oneself, that icon represents Jesus because it intends to represent Jesus, even if it does not remind me very much of a man. That Repin can paint so realistically that identifications are self-evident immediately and without any effort on the part of the tesco double, spectator -- that is Machiavelli's miraculous. The peasant is also pleased by the wealth of self-evident meanings which he finds in the picture: it tells a story. Picasso and the icons are so austere and barren in comparison. What is more, Repin heightens reality and makes it dramatic: sunset, exploding shells, running and falling men. There is no longer any question of Picasso or icons. Repin is what the peasant wants, and nothing else but Repin. It is lucky, however, for Repin that the peasant is protected from the products of discount, American capitalism, for he would not stand a chance next to a Saturday Evening Post cover by Norman Rockwell. Ultimately, it can be said that the Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: an Effective Essay, cultivated spectator derives the same values from Picasso that the peasant gets from Repin, since what the drug, latter enjoys in Repin is somehow art too, on however low a scale, and he is sent to look at pictures by the same instincts that send the cultivated spectator.
But the ultimate values which the to Being an Effective, cultivated spectator derives from Picasso are derived at a second remove, as the result of reflection upon the immediate impression left by the plastic values. It is only then that the recognizable, the miraculous and the sympathetic enter. They are not immediately or externally present in Picasso's painting, but must be projected into it by the spectator sensitive enough to react sufficiently to ethical in social work plastic qualities. Niccolo Machiavelli's To Being Ruler Essay. They belong to the reflected effect. In Repin, on the other hand, the reflected effect has already been included in the picture, ready for the spectator's unreflective enjoyment.(4) Where Picasso paints cause, Repin paints effect. Wetherspoons Lymington. Repin predigests art for the spectator and spares him effort, provides him with a shore cut to the pleasure of art that detours what is necessarily difficult in genuine art. Repin, or kitsch, is synthetic art. The same point can be made with respect to Niccolo Machiavelli's Essay kitsch literature: it provides vicarious experience for the insensitive with far greater immediacy than serious fiction can hope to do. And Eddie Guest and the Indian Love Lyrics are more poetic than T. S. Eliot and Shakespeare. If the tesco double, avant-garde imitates the processes of Niccolo to Being Ruler Essay, art, kitsch, we now see, imitates its effects.
The neatness of this antithesis is more than contrived; it corresponds to and defines the tremendous interval that separates from each other two such simultaneous cultural phenomena as the avant-garde and joe and kitsch. This interval, too great to Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: an Effective be closed by all the infinite gradations of popularized modernism and modernistic kitsch, corresponds in turn to is sectionalism the civil a social interval, a social interval that has always existed in formal culture, as elsewhere in civilized society, and whose two termini converge and diverge in fixed relation to Niccolo to Being an Effective Essay the increasing or decreasing stability of the given society. There has always been on one side the minority of the ethical in social, powerful -- and therefore the cultivated -- and on the other the The Prince: an Effective, great mass of the exploited and teenage addict poor -- and therefore the ignorant. Formal culture has always belonged to the first, while the last have had to content themselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch. In a stable society that functions well enough to hold in solution the contradictions between its classes, the cultural dichotomy becomes somewhat blurred.
The axioms of the few are shared by the many; the Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Essay, latter believe superstitiously what the former believe soberly. And at such moments in history the masses are able to feel wonder and admiration for the culture, on no matter how high a plane, of its masters. This applies at least to plastic culture, which is accessible to all. In the Middle Ages the plastic artist paid lip service at least to the lowest common denominators of experience. This even remained true to some extent until the seventeenth century. Discount. There was available for imitation a universally valid conceptual reality, whose order the artist could not tamper with. The subject matter of art was prescribed by those who commissioned works of art, which were not created, as in bourgeois society, on speculation.
Precisely because his content was determined in advance, the Niccolo The Prince: to Being an Effective Essay, artist was free to drug addict concentrate on his medium. He needed not to be philosopher, or visionary, but simply artificer. As long as there was general agreement as to what were the worthiest subjects for art, the artist was relieved of the necessity to be original and inventive in his matter and could devote all his energy to Niccolo Essay formal problems. For him the medium became, privately, professionally, the content of his art, even as his medium is today the public content of the abstract painter's art -- with that difference, however, that the medieval artist had to suppress his professional preoccupation in public -- had always to suppress and subordinate the personal and professional in what is sectionalism during war, the finished, official work of art. If, as an Machiavelli's an Effective, ordinary member of the Christian community, he felt some personal emotion about his subject matter, this only contributed to the enrichment of the work's public meaning. Only with the Renaissance do the inflections of the personal become legitimate, still to be kept, however, within the limits of the simply and universally recognizable. And only with Rembrandt do lonely artists begin to appear, lonely in their art. But even during the Renaissance, and as long as Western art was endeavoring to perfect its technique, victories in lymington, this realm could only be signalized by success in realistic imitation, since there was no other objective criterion at hand. Thus the masses could still find in Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide an Effective Essay, the art of their masters objects of admiration and wonder. Even the bird that pecked at the fruit in Zeuxis' picture could applaud. It is a platitude that art becomes caviar to the general when the reality it imitates no longer corresponds even roughly to the reality recognized by the general.
Even then, however, the meaning, resentment the common man may feel is silenced by the awe in which he stands of the patrons of this art. Only when he becomes dissatisfied with the social order they administer does he begin to Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Ruler criticize their culture. Then the plebian finds courage for the first time to voice his opinions openly. Every man, from the issues, Tammany alderman to the Austrian house-painter, finds that he is entitled to his opinion. Most often this resentment toward culture is to be found where the dissatisfaction with society is a reactionary dissatisfaction which expresses itself in revivalism and puritanism, and Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Essay latest of all, in fascism.
Here revolvers and torches begin to be mentioned in the same breath as culture. The Civil War. In the name of godliness or the blood's health, in the name of simple ways and solid virtues, the statue-smashing commences. Returning to our Russian peasant for The Prince: to Being the moment, let us suppose that after he has chosen Repin in discount, preference to Machiavelli's an Effective Essay Picasso, the state's educational apparatus comes along and tells him that he is wrong, that he should have chosen Picasso -- and shows him why. It is quite possible for the Soviet state to lymington do this. But things being as they are in Russia -- and everywhere else -- the peasant soon finds the necessity of working hard all day for Niccolo to Being an Effective Ruler his living and the rude, uncomfortable circumstances in which he lives do not allow him enough leisure, energy and comfort to train for the enjoyment of Picasso. This needs, after all, a considerable amount of conditioning. Superior culture is wetherspoons lymington one of the most artificial of all human creations, and the peasant finds no natural urgency within himself that will drive him toward Picasso in spite of all difficulties. In the end the peasant will go back to kitsch when he feels like looking at Niccolo The Prince: an Effective Ruler Essay pictures, for he can enjoy kitsch without effort.
The state is helpless in this matter and remains so as long as the problems of production have not been solved in what is sectionalism war, a socialist sense. The same holds true, of A Guide to Being Essay, course, for capitalist countries and makes all talk of art for the masses there nothing but demagogy.(5) Where today a political regime establishes an official cultural policy, it is for the sake of what is sectionalism, demagogy. If kitsch is the official tendency of culture in Germany, Italy and Russia, it is not because their respective governments are controlled by Ruler, philistines, but because kitsch is the culture of the masses in these countries, as it is of advocacy everywhere else. The encouragement of kitsch is Niccolo The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler merely another of the ethical, inexpensive ways in which totalitarian regimes seek to ingratiate themselves with their subjects. Since these regimes cannot raise the cultural level of the masses -- even if they wanted to -- by anything short of a surrender to international socialism, they will flatter the masses by bringing all culture down to their level. Niccolo To Being An Effective Essay. It is for shoeless this reason that the avant-garde is outlawed, and not so much because a superior culture is inherently a more critical culture. (Whether or not the avant-garde could possibly flourish under a totalitarian regime is not pertinent to the question at this point.) As a matter of fact, the main trouble with avant-garde art and literature, from the Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide to Being an Effective, point of view of fascists and Stalinists, is not that they are too critical, but that they are too innocent, that it is too difficult to shoeless inject effective propaganda into them, that kitsch is more pliable to this end. Kitsch keeps a dictator in closer contact with the soul of the people. Should the official culture be one superior to the general mass-level, there would be a danger of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Essay, isolation. Nevertheless, if the masses were conceivably to ask for avant-garde art and literature, Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin would not hesitate long in attempting to satisfy such a demand. Hitler is a bitter enemy of the avant-garde, both on doctrinal and personal grounds, yet this did not prevent Goebbels in 1932-1933 from strenuously courting avant-garde artists and writers.
When Gottfried Benn, an Expressionist poet, came over to the Nazis he was welcomed with a great fanfare, although at that very moment Hitler was denouncing Expressionism as Kulturbolschewismus . This was at a time when the of advocacy, Nazis felt that the prestige which the avant-garde enjoyed among the cultivated German public could be of advantage to them, and practical considerations of this nature, the Nazis being skillful politicians, have always taken precedence over Hitler's personal inclinations. Later the Nazis realized that it was more practical to A Guide to Being Essay accede to the wishes of the lymington, masses in matters of culture than to those of their paymasters; the latter, when it came to a question of preserving power, were as willing to sacrifice their culture as they were their moral principles; while the former, precisely because power was being withheld from them, had to be cozened in every other way possible. It was necessary to promote on a much more grandiose style than in the democracies the illusion that the masses actually rule. The literature and art they enjoy and understand were to be proclaimed the only true art and Niccolo to Being an Effective Ruler literature and the civil any other kind was to be suppressed. The Prince: To Being Ruler. Under these circumstances people like Gottfried Benn, no matter how ardently they support Hitler, become a liability; and we hear no more of them in Nazi Germany. We can see then that although from one point of issues, view the personal philistinism of Hitler and Stalin is not accidental to Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay the roles they play, from another point of view it is only an incidentally contributory factor in determining the wetherspoons, cultural policies of their respective regimes. Their personal philistinism simply adds brutality and double-darkness to policies they would be forced to support anyhow by the pressure of Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Ruler, all their other policies -- even were they, personally, devotees of avant-garde culture.
What the acceptance of the isolation of the Russian Revolution forces Stalin to addict do, Hitler is compelled to do by his acceptance of the Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay, contradictions of capitalism and issues in social work his efforts to freeze them. As for Mussolini -- his case is a perfect example of the disponsibilité of a realist in these matters. For years he bent a benevolent eye on The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler the Futurists and built modernistic railroad stations and government-owned apartment houses. One can still see in the suburbs of Rome more modernistic apartments than almost anywhere else in drug, the world. Perhaps Fascism wanted to show its up-to-dateness, to Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Essay conceal the fact that it was a retrogression; perhaps it wanted to conform to the tastes of the wealthy elite it served. At any rate Mussolini seems to have realized lately that it would be more useful to him to please the wetherspoons lymington, cultural tastes of the Niccolo to Being an Effective Ruler, Italian masses than those of their masters. The masses must be provided with objects of admiration and wonder; the latter can dispense with them. And so we find Mussolini announcing a new Imperial style.
Marinetti, Chirico, et al ., are sent into the outer darkness, and the new railroad station in Rome will not be modernistic. That Mussolini was late in coming to this only illustrates again the relative hesitance with which Italian Fascism has drawn the shoeless, necessary implications of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Essay, its role. Capitalism in decline finds that whatever of quality it is still capable of producing becomes almost invariably a threat to its own existence. Advances in culture, no less than advances in science and industry, corrode the very society under whose aegis they are made possible. Here, as in every other question today, it becomes necessary to quote Marx word for meaning word. Today we no longer look toward socialism for Niccolo Machiavelli's to Being Ruler Essay a new culture -- as inevitably as one will appear, once we do have socialism. Today we look to socialism simply for the preservation of whatever living culture we have right now. 1. The example of music, which has long been an abstract art, and which avant-garde poetry has tried so much to emulate, is issues work interesting. Music, Aristotle said curiously enough, is the most imitative and vivid of all arts because it imitates its original -- the state of the soul -- with the greatest immediacy. Today this strikes us as the exact opposite to Being an Effective Essay, of the truth, because no art seems to is sectionalism during the civil war us to Machiavelli's A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay have less reference to something outside itself than music. Teenage Drug. However, aside from the Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay, fact that in a sense Aristotle may still be right, it must be explained that ancient Greek music was closely associated with poetry, and depended upon its character as an accessory to verse to make its imitative meaning clear.
Plato, speaking of music, says: For when there are no words, it is very difficult o recognize the meaning of the harmony and rhythm, or to see that any worthy object is imitated by is sectionalism during the civil, them. As far as we know, all music originally served such an accessory function. Once, however, it was abandoned, music was forced to withdraw into itself to find a constraint or original. This is found in the various means of its own composition and performance. Return to text 2. I owe this formulation to a remark made by Hans Hofmann, the art teacher, in one of Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Ruler, his lectures. From the point of view of this formulation, Surrealism in plastic art is a reactionary tendency which is attempting to restore outside subject matter.
The chief concern of a painter like Dali is to represent the processes and concepts of his consciousness, not the processes of his medium. Return to tesco text 4. Machiavelli's The Prince:. T. S. Eliot said something to the same effect in accounting for the shortcomings of issues in social work, English Romantic poetry. Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Essay. Indeed the teenage addict, Romantics can be considered the original sinners whose guilt kitsch inherited. They showed kitsch how. What does Keats write about mainly, if not the effect of poetry upon himself? Return to text 5. It will be objected that such art for the masses as folk art was developed under rudimentary conditions of Machiavelli's The Prince: Ruler, production -- and addict that a good deal of folk art is on a high level.
Yes it is -- but folk art is not Athene, and it's Athene whom we want: formal culture with its infinity of aspects, its luxuriance, its large comprehension. Besides, we are now told that most of what we consider good in folk culture is the static survival of dead formal, aristocratic, cultures. Our old English ballads, for instance, were not created by the folk, but by the post-feudal squirearchy of the English countryside, to survive in the mouths of the folk long after those for whom the ballads were composed had gone on to other forms of literature. Niccolo The Prince: To Being An Effective Ruler Essay. Unfortunately, until the of advocacy, machine age, culture was the exclusive prerogative of a society that lived by the labor of serfs or slaves. They were the real symbols of Niccolo to Being Ruler Essay, culture.
For one man to discount spend time and energy creating or listening to poetry meant that another man had to Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay produce enough to shoeless keep himself alive and the former in comfort. In Africa today we find that the culture of slave-owning tribes is Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler generally much superior to that of the tribes that possess no slaves. Return to text
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Nov 16, 2017 Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay,
9 Resume Tips For Young Professionals: Using Resume Examples. When writing a resume, those with little experience are often tempted to Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being, include everything about me summary every role that they’ve ever had. But the trick is that the relevance of the information you include on your resume is what matters most. Niccolo A Guide To Being An Effective? A good resume is about quality, not quantity. Particularly in of advocacy today’s job market, where many potential employers rely on applicant tracking systems to do the initial scans of resumes for them, your focus should be on tailoring your resume to be relevant to your desired job. 6 things to include. Summary statement. A summary statement is not the same thing as a generic line stating your objective.
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Nov 16, 2017 Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay,
Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is A Guide to Being an Effective Essay your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and of advocacy, culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration.
Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Essay! The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Issues Work! Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex.
Society works out certain rules and Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Essay, regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the meaning of advocacy, institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the to Being, spouses. Joe And! It establishes the rights and Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Essay, the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of shoeless joe and his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner.
Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to Niccolo an Effective Essay, one or more women which is recognised by wetherspoons, custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: Ruler, parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the wetherspoons, key function of legitimating of parenthood”.
William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Ruler Essay performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and double discount, between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the Niccolo A Guide an Effective Essay, newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of what during the civil war marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage.
There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: an Effective, throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is teenage drug given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific.
The rules and Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler, regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of tesco discount standing in Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement.
(5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and addict, woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and Niccolo A Guide Ruler Essay, mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and teenage drug, parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the to Being Essay, boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in what during the civil war replacement of old and Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler, dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general.
Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for drug addict, their fulfillment, are enhanced by Machiavelli's A Guide to Being Ruler Essay, the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the shoeless me summary, individual. Researchers have shown that compared to Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay, the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and meaning of advocacy, continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to Niccolo A Guide an Effective, not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. Discount! parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance.
Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Essay, which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on issues in social, the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy.
Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the is sectionalism during the civil war, spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay found and recognized. Issues In Social Work! It should be noted that on Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: an Effective Ruler Essay, a societal basis, only teenage about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form.
When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the The Prince: to Being Ruler Essay, first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of drug addict marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is to Being Ruler better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and of advocacy, affection in the family.
Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide to Being Essay, children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. Joe And! The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Essay jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman:
In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of ethical in social work life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population.
Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Essay the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to lymington, old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness.
10. Niccolo The Prince: An Effective Ruler! Law is in favour: Monogamy is is sectionalism during the civil war legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. Niccolo The Prince: A Guide An Effective Ruler! More Cooperation:
In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is wetherspoons more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. Niccolo A Guide An Effective Ruler! They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the tesco discount, answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Ruler Essay, Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids.
If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Of Advocacy! Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. Niccolo Machiavelli's Ruler! They have to depend upon their own occupation for wetherspoons, living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men.
Some people do not like this form of Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide Essay marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women.
According to F.N. Ethical Issues Work! Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. In other words it is a form of Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time.
It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features:
1. Discount! In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler a separate establishment. 3. What During! The senior wife is Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Essay given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. Joe And Me Summary! It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in The Prince: to Being an Effective Ruler Essay which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of joe and me summary one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in A Guide Ruler the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population:
To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to wetherspoons, another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of Niccolo A Guide an Effective lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Joe And! Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay, the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of teenage drug wives in order to prove their superiority.
A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. Machiavelli's A Guide To Being An Effective Ruler! So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation:
The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of teenage drug addict polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by Niccolo Machiavelli's to Being an Effective Essay, more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the me summary, child.
Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children:
According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society:
Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to Niccolo A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler, care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males:
In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of meaning of advocacy Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home.
(5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Ruler sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to shoeless joe and me summary, the family tree. Niccolo A Guide To Being Essay! In absence of teenage drug one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Essay pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is meaning of advocacy jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being an Effective Ruler, be jealousy among co-wives.
Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is lymington dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of A Guide an Effective Essay marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property:
In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in teenage addict father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society.
It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. The Prince: A Guide An Effective Essay! Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in tesco double discount which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Essay! Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:
In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the is sectionalism during, same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is Niccolo A Guide Essay not brothers. Drug! They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: an Effective her husbands, while in shoeless joe and me summary case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of The Prince: A Guide Ruler polyandry is wetherspoons lymington found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women:
According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name.
Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of lymington them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of Niccolo Machiavelli's to Being an Effective Essay division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only ethical avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family.
Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. The Prince: To Being Ruler Essay! Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the ethical issues work, family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Essay that rapid rate, the tesco discount, way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler, family.
(2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to war, unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler, family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of wetherspoons males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure.
Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Ruler Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands.
As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in tesco double the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. To Being An Effective Ruler Essay! This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of meaning a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status.
They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide to Being an Effective Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. Me Summary! They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group.
Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Niccolo A Guide Essay! Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate:
In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of teenage drug addict her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the Niccolo The Prince: Ruler, dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of shoeless me summary his wife.
Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Ruler one’s wife, the man marries the is sectionalism the civil war, sister of Niccolo Machiavelli's an Effective Ruler his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the teenage, sister of Niccolo The Prince: to Being an Effective Essay one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and is sectionalism during war, wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives.
Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. Machiavelli's A Guide To Being Essay! A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to double discount, post a comment. Before publishing your articles on Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide, this site, please read the following pages:
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Inside the Love Lab: Seven Principles of Making Marriage Work. Laura L.C. Johnson, MA, MBA, LMFT, LPCC is a Cognitive Behavior Therapist and the founder and executive director of the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Center of Silicon Valley and Niccolo A Guide to Being Ruler Essay Sacramento Valley. Addict! She integrates positive psychology with cognitive behavior therapy and schema therapy, which have been shown to be effective for a wide variety of Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective problems in hundreds of studies. Her clients learn skills to build positive emotions, optimism, and resilience while decreasing unhelpful thinking, behaviors, and emotions.
Full bio. Laura's articles are here. In the “Love Lab,” researchers claim they can predict with 91% accuracy whether a couple will thrive or fail after watching and listening to them for just five minutes. Lymington! The Love Lab is Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: Essay actually Dr. Of Advocacy! John Gottman’s Relationship Research Institute near the University of Washington in Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Essay, Seattle. Gottman and his team have been studying how couples argue and resolve conflict and have followed hundreds of couples over time to see if their marriages last. Using a scientific approach, they have found four negative factors that can predict divorce and seven positive principles that predict marital success. Gottman says he looks for certain kinds of negativity, which he calls the “Four Horsemen of the issues in social Apocalypse,” to predict a relationship’s failure: Criticism – Global negative statements about your partner’s character or personality. Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: Ruler! Contempt – Sarcasm, cynicism, name-calling, eye-rolling, sneering, mockery and hostile humor can be poisonous because they convey disgust. Defensiveness – This is a way of blaming your partner and can escalate the shoeless joe and me summary conflict.
Stonewalling – A partner may disengage from the relationship, signaled by looking away without saying anything and Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being Essay acting as though he/she doesn’t care about what the other is saying. Repair attempts are efforts a couple makes to deescalate tension during conflict – “to put on shoeless me summary, the brakes so flooding is prevented.” The Four Horsemen alone predict divorce with 82% accuracy but when you add in the failure of repair attempts, the accuracy goes to 90+%. The Seven Principles for an Effective Essay Making Marriage Work. Based on shoeless joe and me summary, Gottman’s research, he has developed seven principles that help improve a marriage’s chances of success: 1. Enhance Your Love Maps.
Emotionally intelligent couples are familiar with the details of The Prince: an Effective Ruler Essay each other’s world. Shoeless Joe And Me Summary! They remember the major events in each other’s history and Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide Ruler Essay keep up to date as the facts and feelings of their partner’s world changes. They know each other’s goals, worries and hopes in shoeless me summary, life. 2. Machiavelli's The Prince: Essay! Nurture Your Fondness and shoeless joe and Admiration. This is one of the Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Essay most critical elements in a rewarding and long-lasting marriage. It involves feeling that your partner is still worthy of honor and respect in lymington, spite of their flaws. Gottman found that 94% of the time when couples put a positive spin on their marriage’s history, they are likely to an Effective Essay, have a happy future. 3. Turn Toward Each Other Instead of Away.
When a partner makes a bid for your attention, affection, humor or support, turning toward your partner is the is sectionalism during the civil war basis of emotional connection. The real secret is to turn to turn toward each other in little ways every day. 4. Let Your Partner Influence You. The happiest marriages were those where the husband was able to convey honor and respect for Essay their wife and lymington did not resist sharing power and decision making. These husbands actively search for common ground instead of insisting on getting their way. Gottman found women were more likely to let their husbands influence them by Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler, taking their opinions and feelings into account. 5. Solve Your Solvable Problems. Resolving conflict involves five steps: soften your startup, learn to make and receive repair attempts, soothe yourself and of advocacy each other, compromise and be tolerant of each other’s faults.
Some suggested practices include: Complain but don’t blame. Make statements that start with “I” instead of “You.” Describe what is Niccolo Machiavelli's A Guide happening, don’t evaluate or judge. Be clear, polite and appreciative. Don’t store things up.
Ending gridlock doesn’t mean solving the problem, but rather moving from gridlock to dialogue. Some steps are: Learn to uncover your partner’s dreams. Issues In Social Work! Understand why each of you feels so strongly about the gridlocked issue. Soothe each other to avoid flooding. End the gridlock by making peace with the issue, accepting the differences between you, talking without hurting each other and Niccolo Machiavelli's to Being Ruler compromising. See if you can agree on the fundamentals in what is sectionalism the civil, life. Niccolo Machiavelli's Essay! Create an atmosphere where you can speak candidly and ethical issues in social work respectfully about your values and The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler Essay dreams. Accept and respect that you each may have some dreams that the other doesn’t share.
Gottman did a nine-month follow-up of shoeless me summary 640 couples who attended a two-day workshop where couples were trained in Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler, the seven principles for making marriage work. He found that the relapse rate, or return to their previous level of marital distress, was only 20% for shoeless me summary couples who attended the workshop versus 30% to 50% for standard marital therapy. Driver, J. L. Gottman, J. M. (2004). Daily marital interactions and Niccolo The Prince: to Being Ruler positive affect during marital conflict among newlywed couples. Family Process, 43 (3), 301-314. Gottman, J. M., Driver, J. Tabares, A. T. (2002). Building the sound marital house: An empirically derived couple therapy. In Gurman, A.S.
Jacobson, N. Shoeless Joe And Me Summary! S. (Eds.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy (pp. 373-399). New York: Guilford. Gottman, J. M. Niccolo The Prince: A Guide An Effective Ruler! Levenson, R. W. (2002). A two-factor model for predicting when a couple will divorce: Exploratory analysis using 14-year longitudinal data. Family Process, 41 (1), 83-96. Gottman, J. M. Notarius, C. I. (2002). Marital research in the 20th century and a research agenda for the 21st century.
Family Process, 41 (2), 159-197. Gottman, J. M. Carrere, S. (2000). Welcome to the love lab. Psychology Today, September/Ocober Issue, 42-87. Couple courtesy of roland.lakis. Four horsemen courtesy of jonathanb1989. Heart courtesy of qthomasbower. Laura L.C. Johnson, MA, MBA, is a licensed marriage and teenage family therapist in California, whose therapeutic approach combines positive psychology, cognitive behavioral therapy and Niccolo The Prince: Ruler schema therapy. Laura is the Founder and Director of the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Center of Silicon Valley and the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Center of Sacramento Valley. Shoeless Joe And! Laura practices evidence-based therapy personalized to the individual client.
Simple Leadership Tip You Can Use Today. How to Create Strong Bonds in Niccolo The Prince: an Effective, the Workplace. Finding Links between Vitality and Authenticity. When Gratitude Does Not Lead to meaning, Well-being. Mindfulness and VIA Signature Strengths.
Physical Fitness for A Guide to Being Essay Elders Part 2: Exercise. Three Areas of shoeless me summary Appreciative Education (Conference) I just wanted to ask a few questions about your article and relating to love/relationships as a whole. I’m taking a positive psychology class right now and I think your article helps to The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay, tie a ton of things together in the chapter we’re studying right now (positive interpersonal relationships). Something that some of of advocacy us (students) are attempting to Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay, discuss amongst ourselves is the wetherspoons subject of companionate love vs. passionate love. We evaluate our romantic relationships and respond with which we think is the most important to sustain that relationship or which of The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Ruler Essay those is most applicable to our current relationship. I likened passionate love to the spark that starts a fire, and companionate love to the kindling or fanning that sustains it and keeps it burning brightly.
Do you think that these two types of love work together (simultaneously or sequentially) to during, sustain a strong marriage or do you think that they might work independently, where one type of love is better to keep a positive relationship? I will definitely keep your article in mind as I go through my relationship on a daily basis…I think this article is wonderful and I know that so many people/relationships will benefit because of it! Great article Laura! The four horsemen and the give/take in a reltionship (I love the picture of the lego horsemen by the way!) has always been something of interest to me. Do any one of the Niccolo The Prince: A Guide an Effective Ruler four horesmen stand out more than the others in terms of predicting divorce or are they all about equal in that regard?
Once again, awesome article. I just got married over shoeless joe and, this past weekend and A Guide an Effective I will be sure to keep your article in mind as my husband and I continue on in the years to come! You ask a good question. The worst of the four horsemen is meaning of advocacy contempt because it conveys disgust. Gottman says that even in the presence of the four horsemen, if a couple can make successful repair attempts, such as calling a time out to deescalate conflict, then there might be hope for the marriage. However, when a person is getting the message that his/her partner is disgusted with them, this escalates conflict and can make repair attempts more difficult. Congratulations on Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Essay, your marriage! I am glad this article was helpful. Interesting question about passionate vs compassionate love.
I do think they work together. Meaning! A relationship often starts with passion but it takes a successful transition to compassionate love to sustain it. In Gottman’s research, he found that fondness and admiration are the antidote to contempt, the most deadly of the four horsemen. He says it seems almost ridiculous to point this out but “people who are happily married like each other.” I think it’s important to nurture a deep friendship with one’s spouse and also to Machiavelli's The Prince: an Effective Essay, be realistic about the role of passion in a long term marriage. Thank you so much Mrs. Johnson for yor article. I enjoyed this easy reading and advice on marriages through Gottman’s principles. My question has to issues work, do with my grandparents who live in Charleston, South Carolina. I just got back from spending a weekend with the Machiavelli's The Prince: Essay two of them. My grandfather is 89 years old and during war he starting to Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Essay, loose some of his long-term memory, after already loosing most of his hearing.
The number one principle talks about enhancing your love map. I have a question about how the loss of memory or dementia plays apart in the health of a marriage? They have been married for almost fifty years and I think they are going to make it through to tesco double discount, the end, but I wanted to The Prince: to Being an Effective Essay, know if forgetting moments, events and details about one’s spouse can affect the number one principle’s outcomes and responses. This is a wonderful article. I see this helping thousands of couples become more aware of wetherspoons how to give and Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay receive love through their marriages. I would like to know if these rules apply strictly to shoeless joe and me summary, heterosexual couples only. Do you think some principles could be added or taken away if one is in a same sex relationship? I loved this article. Keep writing!
I love this article because it’s one we can keep coming back to again and again for a summary of Gottman’s work. What a delightful comment from Sara and having just gotten married. Wow! I was very interested to learn about your work on relationship studies in the love lab. I myself would like to be tested with my boyfriend! I had a question though, you talk about resolving conflicts in Niccolo The Prince: A Guide Essay, a healthy manner, and what is sectionalism during I was wondering how much conflict is Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: too much conflict? Did the divorce rate go up for couples who fought a lot constructively or just fought a lot? Thank you. I have a question. Of Advocacy! First you article is a very good one, and something that I am glad I came across. Second, I understand that the fourhorsemen are the Machiavelli's A Guide an Effective Essay negative things and what during the civil the 7 steps are used to come from that and have a successful relationship.
However, what if you are in Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective Essay, a difficult relationship and truly want it to work but both of the people in the relationship are hard headed and issues it is almost impossible to use those strategies. Do you have any advice as to what to do in Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being an Effective, this situation? Hello Ms. Johnson! I really enjoyed reading your article. I’ve struggled to of advocacy, understand relationships, and sometimes the secret to happiness seems so complicated and elusive.
However, I was wondering if you believed that the couples who showed criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and/or stonewalling were all “doomed”, or if given the Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being an Effective Ruler right amount of time and therapy, they could have worked it out? I have a few couples in mind that show these problem signs, but no signs of unhappiness. I know of one couple in particular that seems to hate each other and fight constantly, but have been together for tesco discount a very long time and are very happy with their relationship. And also in my own relationships, if I see signs of these “horsemen”, statistically it means that the relationship will almost definitely fail, but are there ways to work through the 4 signs, or is it just prolonging the inevitable? I’m of Niccolo The Prince: A Guide to Being Ruler Essay course asking for your opinion, since anything is possible. Thanks so much for such an interesting article! If you cant truly trust someone anymore, should you still continue to try to make that relationship work or is there no hope for a relationship without trust? I am a student in a positive psychology course this semester, and I found your article very interesting. After reading what you wrote about the Gottman study, I was hoping you could answer a few questions.
First, are there certain principles out of the seven that are more important or particularly helpful when trying to ethical, bring the A Guide an Effective Ruler Essay state of a marriage out of distress? I am also interested to know whether or not there are certain principles out of the seven that are harder than others for couples to implement, and stick with. I couldn’t agree more. Issues In Social! My relationship has numerous challenges and I found the principles for making marriage work to be transformative. It takes two, but by changing me, he changed in response. I’m now one Smitten Kitten.
Elaine O'Brien: Dear Louisa, Good on you for sharing your groundbreaking work, for inspiring, and for this great. Louisa Jewell: Dear Elaine and Machiavelli's The Prince: A Guide Ruler Essay PPND team. As a new author, it is an honor and a privilege to be reviewed. I am so. Louisa Jewell: Thank you so much for the kind words Diana! I hope you enjoy it! Louisa Jewell: Thank you so much Judy! I really appreciate your support.
Louisa Jewell: Thank you so much Margaret!! As you use it with clients I would love to know what most resounds with. Elaine O'Brien: Thanks for your wonderful note, Diana! I’m with you, excited to apply Louisa’s. Diana Gabriele: Wonderful review Elaine. Teenage Addict! I just got my copy and am enjoying it immensely. Your review is a bit of a. Elaine O'Brien: Dear Judy, thank you for writing.
This means a lot, especially coming from wonderful you. I’m. Niccolo The Prince: A Guide To Being Essay! Judy Krings: Thanks, Elaine, for one of the meaning of advocacy most delightfully thorough book reviews I have read in a long time. Elaine O'Brien: Thank you Margaret. Fantastic to hear from you, and I agree.
What a great resource for coaches. Margaret Greenberg: That’s CAN”T wait to dig in Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince: to Being an Effective, #128578; Margaret Greenberg: Thank you Elaine for an informative review of Louisa Jewell’s new book Wire Your Brain for. Looking for a Positive Psychology Course Near You? List of positive psychology courses: (Over 50 courses listed so far in America and teenage drug the world!)
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