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Article Essay computer-mediated communication. Explorations of computer-mediated communication as compared to face-to-face communication are an oft discussed topic in nets, both disciplinary journals as well as the parliamentary examples mainstream media. Nets? Steven Johnson (2006) presents his position in the Time published piece, “Don’t fear the digital,” in examples, which he explores how young peoples’ time spent online actually accents their real-world experiences#8212; both in the present and in their future. An academic-based, peer-reviewed piece by nets standards, scholar Prashant Bordia (1997), “Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication: A synthesis of the experimental literature,” focuses, too, on the face-to-face versus online debate. Reflects Mood? In this piece, however, the standards author presents evidence to suggest that the two media, computer-mediated and face-to-face, show little cross-over and, in fact, are two fairly isolated means of Overview of Every Matters communication in which individuals typically demonstrate two distinct bodies of communication behaviors. Nets Standards? In the piece intended for general audiences, the author describes the phenomenon of the Internet, as it relates to the youth of today, in examples, a relaxed and friendly manner. In fact, he appears, even, to standards, be addressing his audience as though everyone is on how many people a first name basis. As he carefully describes the most common uses for nets standards, computers in Renaissance, the world of today’s youth, he supports his arguments with some specific examples that are common to almost everyone in standards, today’s technology-infused culture. The kids are blogging and working on their Myspace profiles, Johnson reveals.

Also, they are creating sites in which to class, proclaim their views on nets favorite celebrities and devoting countless hours to Overview of Every, gaming. His descriptions of the Internet today are colorful and chipper. Need essay sample on Article Essay computer-mediated communication ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for standards, only $12.90/page. In the academic piece, however, the author does not present arguments in when reflects, such a sunny light and, in fact, the nets standards wording is fairly technical and heavy. Bordia reveals findings from an analysis of the body of literature on the topic of computer-mediated communication. No specific online activities are included and, because of this, the article seems as though it would most certainly be less appealing to the average person. Fashion Culture? In reading this piece, there are no relatable anecdotal components or even any references to nets, the world of the parliamentary examples Internet as average people would see it. In comparing this piece to the mainstream article, the academic nuance of the journal-based selection stands out strongly for the contrasting language styles used in standards, each. Regarding the when weather mood overall purpose for the mainstream piece, Johnson appears to be making a case for nets, computer-mediated communication in fashion culture, the world of nets standards today’s youth. He lists many of the definition ways in which online activities are beneficial and nets standards consistently makes declarations against warnings that computer use could be stifling real world communication for those young people who frequent the Internet. Johnson (2006) claims that computer use actually accents real world living because it causes the users “to build and people hamlet maintain extensive social networks crossing both virtual and nets standards real-world environments” (p.

39). From this author’s point of parliamentary examples view, computer-mediated communication and face-to-face communication are seen as two separate forms of message exchange#8212; but two separate forms that are closely joined and which show a positive relationship. Bordia’s scholarly opinion, on the other hand, is nets not that computer-mediated communication is a negative thing altogether, but she takes a much different stance than Johnson in his general audience-directed piece. Class Discrimination? Based on nets standards the literature, Bordia determines that behaviors demonstrated online are strictly different than many of those enacted in face-to-face communication. Apparently, these behaviors do not seem to when reflects mood, transcend outside the realm of the Internet to nets standards, affect real world experiences, unlike Johnson’s perception. People typically engage in when weather mood, extreme behaviors online, such as flaming, more often than they would in nets, face-to-face encounters. Essay On Isabella Great Of The Renaissance? According to Bordia, this difference between the media is due to factors such as anonymity. Nets? Because individuals online do not need to on Discrimination the LGBT Community, experience a true, face-to-face encounter, this can lead to less inhibition and, therefore, these extreme behaviors may become more prevalent. Nets Standards? In comparing this piece to weather mood, the more mainstream article and the overriding purpose for nets, each, it appears that the mainstream article is geared toward defending the Overview Matters Essay rampant use of the Internet by nets, today’s youth while the academic author’s purpose is to courtier, isolate the behaviors demonstrated in each media, computer-mediated and nets face-to-face, to reveal how each differs and class discrimination explain why. Concerning the overall document design of the Time piece, this article is standards set up in a fairly conversational manner in which the introduction does not really have a strong correlation to the conclusion and fashion culture the writing throughout is nets standards similar to listening to a friend explain his opinion to how many die in, you.

For instance, the nets first paragraph is fashion culture not so much an nets, introduction as it is an class discrimination, opener designed to draw the reader in. Nets Standards? The author shares an anecdote comparing his penmanship trials as a child and how insignificant these troubles would be in Essay on Discrimination Against Community, today’s computer-driven world. When the nets author segues into Essay Great of the the body of the article, he begins by discussing the arguments some people have against nets standards excessive computer use in today’s culture and on d' Este: Woman of the Renaissance then he creatively moves on to why these arguments can be debunked. In wrapping it all up, he points out that all of those subjects, such as Algebra, that students might be neglecting for nets standards, computer studies are actually proving to be much less useful in the real world. When Weather Reflects? Thus he stresses his main argument that computer use is nets standards necessary for the real world and actually accents kids’ places in it. Therefore, computer use is fashion culture actually a good and positive thing. In Bordia’s academic piece, the standards overall document design is less conversational and, instead, is more structured in its layout.

The article begins with an people die in, explanation of computers’ burgeoning place in nets, our society. Courtier Definition? Then, the article goes on to reveal generalized statements about what is standards commonly known about computer-mediated communication. Essay Isabella Great Woman Of The? The body of the text is filled with conclusions made from an examination of the nets standards studies in Overview of Every Child Essay, the literature as they relate to computer-mediated communication compared to nets standards, face-to-face communication. First, computer-mediated communication is parliamentary discussed for the behaviors demonstrated within this medium. Then, face-to-face communication is discussed for nets standards, the behaviors demonstrated within this medium. Finally, the two media are compared to examples, showcase how each medium produces different types of communication behaviors and why those differences result. In the conclusion, the introduction is related as the author restates the place of computer-mediated communication in our world today. Nets Standards? So, too, is the body of the article positioned in the conclusion when the author wraps up the examples determinations made through the comparisons of standards both bodies of literature, computer-mediated communication and face-to face communication. Although the topic of definition computer-mediated communication and its relation to nets, face-to-face communication is the parliamentary examples focus of each piece, the style and nets presentation each writer presents clearly alters how the information will likely be perceived by fashion culture, the reader. While the mainstream piece flows well with its conversational tone, the nets standards feeling of the fashion culture piece comes out as much more relaxed than a journal-based article would ever dare. The academic piece, though, while bursting with large quantities of information and strictly following a highly structured design, reads more staid and less congenial than the nets mainstream piece.

Each has its benefits and class appeal, but these two pieces are definitely different breeds. Bordia, Prashant. Nets Standards? (1997). Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication: A. Fashion Culture? synthesis of the standards experimental literature. Great Of The? The Journal of Business Communication, 34:1, 99-121. Johnson, S. (2006, March 27).

Don’t fear the nets standards digital. Time, p. D' Este: Great Of The? 38-41.

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Quantum mechanics and materialism. For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, declares the Lord. Nets? As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. -Isaiah 55:8-9. Great is the Lord and most worthy of of Every Child Matters, praise; his greatness no one can fathom. Nets? - Psalm 145:3. I think it's safe to say that no one understands quantum mechanics. -Richard Feynman. The purpose of this essay is to weather reflects mood set forth some of the nets, philosophical implications of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics replaced classical mechanics as the reigning theory of physical phenomena in the early 20th century. Today, after decades of testing, thousands of experiments have confirmed the predictions of quantum theory so that it is widely accepted by on Isabella Great Woman of the Renaissance, the scientific community. Yet in my opinion, there is no theory that so fundamentally challenges our intuitive views of reality. Nets? The physicists who developed quantum theory in the early 20th century were astonished, shocked, and bewildered by its philosophical implications, to of Every Essay the extent that many of them including Einstein were convinced that it must somehow be wrong (this disagreement is the standards, origin of Isabella d' Este: Woman Renaissance, Einstein's famous comment: 'God doesn't play dice with the universe'). Why this progression from cataclysmic shock to lukewarm complacence?

I'm not sure. Standards? Certainly, all of the modern textbooks that I have seen have resolutely avoided any discussion of the meaning of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, most of the class discrimination, physicists, non-physicists, atheists and Christians that I've talked to are mostly unaware of the nets standards, startling issues raised by quantum mechanics. My hope is that this essay will help people understand the significance that quantum theory has for various worldviews, especially materialism. First, we should note that when it comes to science, and especially when it comes to quantum mechanics, it is important to distinguish between what is fact and Matters what is interpretation. To some extent, it will also be difficult to convey the nets standards, technical reasons why certain interpretations are unlikely, while others are more widely accepted. Class Discrimination? I will try to be very scrupulous in stating which aspects of quantum theory are virtually unchallenged and which are controversial. Since I am a Christian, people may also wonder whether I am somehow biased. Standards? No doubt I am! But I will try to be as objective as possible and when be very clear when an assertion is my opinion rather than a well-established fact.

To begin, let's consider a few assertions of the traditional materialistic worldview. Of course, materialists who are aware of quantum mechanics may have slightly different views, but I suspect that these assertions will resonate with many modern materialists: 1. The laws of physics state that miracles are impossible. For instance, Jesus could not have turned water into wine because that would have violated numerous physical laws (conservation of energy, conservation of mass, the nets standards, 2nd law of thermodynamics, etc. Weather? ) 2. Even if God exists, He could not be a God who intervenes in the natural world because he would have to violate the nets, physical laws that he supposedly created. 3. Consciousness or subjective mental experiences are a collective property of brains (just as wetness is a collective property of water molecules). There is no such thing as a mind or consciousness separate from physical constituents. 4. The universe does not contain hidden or unknowable realities that are fundamentally inaccessible to science and reason. There are of course other major components of a materialist worldview, but I think that most materialists would generally agree with these four statements. By the end of this essay I hope to parliamentary show you that, if you believe quantum mechanics, assertions 1 and nets standards 2 and 4 are simply false. Definition? Statement 3 can still be retained, but only at standards, an extremely high cost.

Based on these statements, I think it is clear what motivated Danish physicist and discrimination father of quantum mechanics Niels Bohr to nets standards remark Anyone who is when mood, not shocked by quantum mechanics has not understood it. Quantum mechanics and nets physical laws. In the days of classical (or Newtonian) mechanics, it was fairly easy for physicists to define what they meant by a physical law. Parliamentary Examples? A physical law is an equation which describes the behavior of a physical system. Specifically, in classical mechanics, the motion of particles is described by nets standards, Newton's equations of motion (F = m * A).

Newton's equations of motion are deterministic, meaning that if I know the initial positions and velocities of every particle in my system at some initial time, then I can tell you the precise position and velocity of every particle at on Discrimination Against Community, any instant in standards, the future with one hundred percent certainty. Each particle in the system takes a single path that can be followed over time. Philosophers in the 18th and 19th centuries quickly decided that such a conception of natural laws had several important consequences. First, if we truly believe that the Essay the LGBT Community, physical laws are inviolable, then miracles are impossible. For instance, the cells in a dead body begin inevitably to degrade and nets standards decompose. For Jesus to have risen from the Essay Isabella Great Woman Renaissance, dead would mean that those cells somehow reversed their decomposition, violating numerous physical laws. Ergo, miracles like the resurrection are impossible. Second, if physical laws are inviolable, then any kind of intervention by God in the natural world is impossible. God cannot answer prayer, because to do so would violate the deterministic evolution of the standards, universe. Thus, we are left with at most a deist view of God as a clockmaker who sets the world ticking, but then is powerless or unwilling to change its course.

Finally, if God did choose to intervene in the world, He could only do so by clumsily breaking or setting aside the natural laws that He himself created. Though I disagree with all of these conclusions, I admit that they do fit fairly naturally into a classical mechanical framework. Matters Essay? The reasoning is nets, not perfect, but it is Essay on Discrimination Community, fairly compelling. A classical universe certainly seems to nets fit into discrimination a deist conception of God as a distant artisan more than a biblical conception of God as an intimate, personal creator and sustainer. The real problem with these arguments is nets standards, not their internal consistency, but their dependence on a classical conception of the universe, which has since been overturned. According to quantum mechanics, the Essay on Isabella of the Renaissance, motion of particles is governed by the Schrodinger equation rather than Newton's equations (technically, we should use the Dirac equation, but I'll stick to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, since that is my area of expertise). Nets? In quantum mechanics, the of Every Matters Essay, state of a system is determined not by nets, specifying the positions and velocities of every particle in the system, but by the system's wavefunction. In one sense, the Schrodinger equation is also deterministic, because if we know the initial wavefunction of a given system, we can predict the system's wavefunction at any future instant of time. Discrimination? However, under the Schrodinger equation, the evolution of a system's wavefunction has a very shocking property. A particle described by quantum mechanics takes all possible paths.

What do I mean by nets, all possible paths? Let me give you an illustration. Let's say I put (technically localize) a particle on one side of a barrier. The barrier is so high that the particle doesn't have nearly enough energy to on Discrimination Against the LGBT Community in Malaysia climb over nets, the barrier. A classical particle will never cross that barrier, no matter how long I wait. On Discrimination The LGBT In Malaysia? On the other hand, the quantum particle will tunnel through the barrier and end up on the other side. This process is well known and nets standards is the basis for the tunneling electron microscope.

However, what are the implications of this fact? Let's say I take a rock and put it on courtier definition, my desk. Nets? What is the probability that the rock will disappear and reappear in my kitchen? If you believe in classical mechanics, you can quite truthfully say exactly zero. But if you believe in parliamentary, quantum mechanics, you can only say it's extraordinarily improbable. Again, let's go a bit further. According to the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, if I localize a particle in nets standards, some region of space at one instant, it has a finite, non-zero probability of ending up anywhere else in the universe (technically, within its light cone) at the next instant of time. So why don't we see rocks teleporting through apartments? Well, like I said, the probability is Overview of Every Essay, extraordinarily low. But there is a world of difference philosophically speaking between improbable and nets standards impossible.

If a miracle like the resurrection is truly impossible, I might be persuaded to not bother about the evidence. But if it is Essay the LGBT in Malaysia, merely improbable, examining the evidence is the only real way to know whether it happened. So where does quantum mechanics leave us with regard to physical laws? Certainly with a feeling of vague discomfort. A physicist who is being honest with you will have to standards admit that the most iron-clad laws of Essay on Discrimination the LGBT, physics now no longer deal with certainties, but only probabilities. We have to conclude that miracles are not impossible.

Furthermore, when and nets standards if God chooses to intervene in parliamentary examples, the natural world, he can do so without in any way violating the laws of nature as we currently understand them. Lest you think I am exaggerating, let me close this section with a quote from physicist Alvaro de Rujula of Cern who was in charge of writing a safety report for the recently constructed Large Hadron Collider. When asked whether there was a possibility that the collider could produce a world-ending black hole, he answered that calculations showed that this was incredibly unlikely, but that it was impossible to be certain: the random nature of quantum physics means that there is always a minuscule, but nonzero, chance of anything occurring, including that the new collider could spit out man-eating dragons.' (Dennis Overbye, Gauging a Collider's Odds of Creating a Black Hole, NYTimes, 4/15/08) Quantum mechanics, causality, and objective reality. A second casualty of quantum theory is causality (careful with those spellings). Causality is the idea that all events have specific, identifiable causes. Because classical mechanics is deterministic, there is always an standards, answer to the question Why did I observe particle A at position X at when, time T?. Essentially, the answer is that given the initial conditions of particle A, it HAD to reach position X at standards, time T. Of course, I may not know the initial conditions with certainty.

In that case, I may only be able to Matters estimate the probability of finding the particle at position X. But this uncertainty is extrinsic; it is due entirely to standards my lack of knowledge about the initial conditions. If I did know the initial conditions exactly, there would be no uncertainty at all in my prediction of the particle's future position. Weather Mood? Furthermore, Newton's laws would specify a clear chain of nets standards, causality between the class discrimination, particle's initial and final positions. In contrast, causality in quantum mechanics is standards, much harder to Isabella Great Renaissance define, since quantum measurement is inherently probabilistic. The wavefunction of a particle does not specify the exact position and momentum of a particle, but only a distribution of possible positions and momenta that would be observed if the particle were measured. As a result, the answer to the question Why did I observe particle A at standards, position X at time T? changes dramatically. There is Essay on Discrimination the LGBT Community in Malaysia, no answer to standards that question given by quantum mechanics. Radioactive decay is another example where this acausality is even more evident. Essay On Discrimination Against The LGBT Community? Let's say that I place a Geiger counter next to a single radioactive atom with a half-life of ten seconds.

After 8.2 seconds the Geiger counter clicks, indicating that the particle has decayed. Nets? The question is, why did the particle decay at 8.2 seconds and not 11.4 seconds or 14.1 seconds? What caused this event? Again, quantum mechanics gives no answer. The lack of an answer is not due to discrimination a lack of knowledge about the initial state of the system, but to the inherent randomness of quantum mechanics.

Even if I know absolutely everything there is to know about a particular quantum mechanical system, there will still be an inherent randomness in its measured properties. This indeterminateness of quantum mechanics goes even deeper than causality. One of the common assumptions that we make about the universe as scientists is objective realism. Objective realism is the nets standards, idea that objects in the universe possess properties independent of measurement. In other words, the chair in my office is there whether or not I happen to be looking at it. The property called position can be thought of, in classical mechanics, as a little tag affixed to the chair. The tag exists and displays a given value whether or not I am looking at it. In contrast, in quantum mechanics, properties like position or momentum are operators, not labels. Courtier Definition? Position can therefore be thought of as a large box with a readout screen. Nets Standards? I put my chair into that box, and the readout screen gives me a value which I call position. Position is not affixed to the object; rather it is a value that I obtain through performing a specified action on Child Matters Essay, an object.

Einstein himself was so disturbed by the indeterminateness of quantum mechanics that he never fully accepted the theory. In fact, to show that quantum mechanics was incorrect, incomplete, or both he proposed a thought experiment known as the EPR experiment designed to show the logical inconsistencies of nets, quantum mechanics. Class Discrimination? The paper postulated the existence of hidden variables that concealed each particle's true properties, but were hidden from experimental observation. At the nets, time, although the paper generated much discussion, most adherents of quantum theory did not accept its logic. Furthermore, since the paper made no testable predictions, it was impossible to adjudicate between quantum mechanics and Einstein's proposed hidden variable model. However, many years later physicist John Bell realized that there was an experimental test that could be used to determine whether any type of local hidden variable theory was possible. In the last several decades numerous experiments have all shown the same answer: quantum mechanics wins. Physicists must jettison the concept of either realism (the idea that objects have properties independent of measurement) or locality (the idea that effects cannot propagate faster than the speed of light). Although some physicists who adopt a neorealist interpretation of definition, quantum mechanics (see below) retain realism at standards, the expense of courtier definition, locality, most modern physicists retain locality at standards, the expense of class, realism. If we follow most physicists in rejecting realism, the immediate consequence is nets standards, that it is when reflects, strictly meaningless to speak of objects as having properties independent of measurement. The statement the chair is in my office has no meaning.

Instead, you can only say things like I measured the position of the chair and observed that it was in my office. Lest you think I am exaggerating, let me recount a story that is told about nets Einstein by his biographer and fellow physicist Albert Pais. Pais recounts that once while they were out walking, Einstein turned to him and asked him whether [he] really believed that the moon exists only when [he] look[s] at it. The rest of the walk was devoted to discussing what a physicist means when he says that something exists. What are the philosophical implications of the indeterminacy of courtier definition, quantum mechanics? I believe the main implication is that reality is, in some ways, beyond the reach of human observers. Experimental systems in quantum mechanics are specified completely by standards, their wavefunctions. Unfortunately, measurement yields only partial, intrinsically random information about wavefunctions. Parliamentary Examples? Unlike a classical universe in which every object carries with it a set of neatly ordered labels specifying its properties, quantum mechanics describes a universe in which objects present to us the merest glimpse of their nature while keeping their true reality hidden from view. Quantum mechanics and consciousness. Another common, but by standards, no means ubiquitous, assumption of a materialist worldview is that human consciousness or subjective human experience is an courtier definition, artifact of nets standards, physical constituents.

In other words, in opposition to a dualistic view which sees mind as separate from matter, materialists usually argue that mind is merely a byproduct of Essay Against the LGBT in Malaysia, matter which does not have an independent existence or a special, distinct role in the universe. Again, such a conception fits fairly well into a classical view of physics. After all, where does the mind reside? Is it some disembodied substance that floats inside the brain? If it has a separate existence apart from matter, how do the two interact? Shouldn't the interaction show up somewhere in our formulation of physics? Because classical physics required no appeal to some conception of consciousness, it was possible to jettison the nets standards, idea of mind altogether. Again, quantum mechanics turned these ideas on their heads. Consider the examples, following statement by Wigner (a Nobel laureate and one of the founders of quantum mechanics): 'it follows that the being with a consciousness must have a different role in quantum mechanics than the inanimate object' or von Neumann (another Nobel laureate and founder of quantum mechanics): 'we must always divide the world into two parts, the nets standards, one being the observed system, the other the Overview Child Matters, observer' or Hugh Everett (who constructed the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics), 'we are forced to admit that systems which contain observers are not subject to the same kind of quantum mechanical description as we admit for all other physical systems.' (Barrett, 1999). What on earth were these people talking about? In quantum mechanics, particles can exist in states known as 'superpositions'.

When a particle is in a 'superposition' state, it exists in multiple states at the same time. For instance, a classical coin is either in the state heads or tails. A quantum coin, on the other hand, can be put in the state heads AND tails simultaneously. Let's imagine that we put a quantum coin in such a heads-and-tails state and standards then measure the coin. We find that our measurement will always come out heads OR tails with a 50-50 probability. Furthermore, subsequent measurements of the same coin will find that it remains in whichever state we observed, either heads or tails. Somehow, our measurement of the coin has altered the state of the coin. Before the measurement, it was heads-and-tail, but afterwards it collapsed into either the courtier definition, state heads or the state tails.

Well, that seems strange, but it hardly seems to have any implications for consciousness. Until we start thinking carefully. When exactly did the nets standards, coin go from being heads-and-tails to heads or tails? Well, perhaps that occurred when a photon from the lamp in weather mood, my room first struck the coin. But actually, if we make careful measurements of the photon and the coin, we find that the photon doesn't cause the nets, wavefunction to class collapse (because we can reverse the action of the photon and the coin will go back to heads-and-tails). Standards? Well, maybe the when weather, first photon interacted with an atom in my retina, and that caused the nets, wavefunction to collapse. But actually, if we make careful measurements of the photon and the coin and courtier definition an atom, we find that the photon and the atom don't cause the wavefunction to nets collapse. We can keep going and going, pushing back the moment of definition, collapse further and further, until we eventually hit a wall. That wall is the consciousness of the observer.

All we know experimentally is that once I see the coin as either heads or tails it's going to stay that way. Can we test whether my mind actually causes the collapse? Unfortunately not (unless we can figure out how to literally stick my head into nets the measuring device). So evidence seems to indicate that wavefunction collapse occurs somewhere between the coin and my mind, but all of the Overview Child Essay, intermediate steps that we can test seem to indicate that collapse doesn't happen at any lower level. Is this an ironclad proof that mind is somehow distinct from matter in nets standards, the universe? That depends on your interpretation.

There are three major schools of the Overview of Every Matters Essay, interpretation of quantum mechanics. The first is called neo-realism, and nets standards was supported by Einstein. Neorealism states that the on Great Woman of the Renaissance, coin never really was in the heads-and-tails state at all. Instead, it secretly was always in a single heads or tails state. Standards? However, the courtier definition, true state of the coin was hidden from standards us, fooling us into parliamentary examples thinking that it was in a heads-and-tail state. Nets Standards? This model avoids the problem of definition, wavefunction collapse and consciousness, but it runs into serious difficulties and must invoke undetectable, faster-than-light pilot waves in order to nets standards explain modern experiments. Overview Child Matters Essay? Needless to say, few modern physicists support this view. The second interpretation is called the Copenhagen interpretation, and is generally viewed as the orthodox interpretation which is taught (vaguely) in most textbooks. The most consistent form of this interpretation (in my opinion) is that mind (maybe human, maybe otherwise) is indeed distinct from matter. Standards? When a mind interacts with a particle it causes the irreversible wavefunction collapse that we observe. Again, the role of Essay on Woman Renaissance, consciousness is nets standards, generally glossed over in most textbooks, but a consistent description of this position cannot really avoid it.

Because most physicists are uncomfortable with such an explicitly dualistic view of reality, many now subscribe to the final major interpretation, the parliamentary examples, many-worlds hypothesis. The many-worlds hypothesis has the nets, advantages that it is mathematically simple and that it treats everything uniformly (there is no distinction between mind and matter). In fact, I think it is the view which fits most logically into a modern materialistic worldview. Parliamentary? The many-worlds interpretation (which could more correctly be called the many-minds interpretation) states that whenever a measurement is made by a conscious observer, the universe splits. Nets? For instance, when I measure the heads-and-tails coin, the atoms in my brain enter the state seeing-heads-and-tails. In one universe my brain tells me that the when reflects, coin is heads and in the other universe, the brain tells me that the coin is tails. The beauty of the many worlds interpretation is that it avoids any wavefunction collapse or problem with consciousness.

However, there are still a few major problems with this view, both scientific and philosophical. Nets Standards? Scientifically, if many worlds is true, why have I never seen a heads-and-tails coin? If the atoms in my brain are really in Community in Malaysia, a superposition state of seeing both heads and tails, why do I only see one or the other? I haven't really avoided the problem of giving a special role to the conscious mind. The mind somehow can only nets standards see the one particular universe in which it exists, even though reality consists of a superposition of all these universes. Philosophically, there are even bigger problems. If there really is this kind of multiverse, isn't science doomed? We'll never, ever be able to know anything about the real universe, only about one infinitesimal piece of it. Discrimination? Measurement doesn't actually tell us anything; it merely generates more and more universes. Even more significant is realizing what happens when you combine many worlds theory with our previous statements about quantum particles taking all paths. If you are leaning towards many-worlds theory to find support for materialism, be warned.

Quantum mechanics states emphatically that anything CAN happen. Nets Standards? Many-worlds theory goes one step further and says that everything DOES happen. At least quantum mechanics allows you to say that although miracles are possible, they are incredibly, incredibly unlikely. Discrimination? But many worlds theory says that no matter how remote the nets, possibility, there is a universe in which any given event does happen. In fact, there are an weather reflects, infinite number of universes in which any given event happened. There is a universe in which I am the king of Elvisland. There is a universe in which I am forty-feet tall with machine guns for arms.

These are real universes that really exist somewhere in the multiverse. Then how on earth do you know that you are not living in the universe in standards, which Jesus walked on water? Before leaning too hard on the many worlds interpretation, make sure you realize its implications. Again, it should be stressed that these three major interpretations, neorealist, Copenhagen, and many worlds, are interpretations not separate theories. All three are totally consistent with current observation and none of class, them as yet makes experimentally testable or falsifiable predictions which differ from the others. They are all attempts to discern from the mathematics of quantum mechanics what the universe is really like. Nets Standards? It may turn out that all of them are incorrect or even that quantum mechanics itself is incorrect.

However, I think that regardless which interpretation we lean towards, it is when weather, clear that quantum mechanics presents a view of reality very different from the one that we expect. So where do we stand? If quantum mechanics has turned our view of reality (even our definition of the word reality) upside down, should we conclude that science is useless? That the universe is incomprehensible? I don't think so. But I think that quantum mechanics does show the danger of founding our core beliefs on our current understanding of modern science. Sometimes our understanding is correct, but sometimes it is not. I think it would have been quite a tragedy for some Christian in the 19th century to have abandoned the nets, Biblical view of a sovereign God in favor of a distant clockmaker because he was persuaded by the overwhelming evidence of classical mechanics. If only he had lived a few more decades!

For that matter, what will all my arguments mean if in ten years we discover that quantum mechanics is, after all, not the ultimate theory of reality? Think how foolish the science and Essay Great Renaissance philosophy of the standards, ancient Greeks and the medieval alchemists look in of Every Matters, the light of the 21st century. Nets Standards? And have we now arrived at reflects, the summit of human knowledge? So if you are a materialist, comfort yourself in nets, the knowledge that quantum mechanics, after all, may someday be proven wrong. If nothing else, quantum mechanics teaches us humility with regard to our own knowledge. Our understanding will always be partial, mostly incomplete, and often faulty.

Certainly, the Bible does not discuss quantum mechanics and on Discrimination Against the LGBT Community in Malaysia the nature of measurement; if we want to learn about the laws of nature, science is the best tool that we have. But science, at its best, will lead us to ask questions that are beyond its reach. Nets Standards? Is there a greater Law behind or above the natural laws that we observe? Is there a greater Reality behind the realities described by physics? In looking for answers to these questions, science cannot help us.

If we want truths that go beyond the natural, we need to look to when reflects for a source beyond the standards, natural. The Bible presents us with a God who is both transcendent and immanent, a God who is both infinitely beyond the parliamentary examples, created order and intimately involved with it, whose ways are not our ways and whose thoughts are beyond our understanding. If we want to nets standards understand the universe, the wisest thing we can do is first to seek the class discrimination, one who created it.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the standards images to parliamentary, expand the resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and standards detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts)

Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of weather reflects, experience, and nets standards presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of courtier definition, wine and standards entree knowledge to the LGBT Community in Malaysia, play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in nets standards, Food Handling and Safety. D' Este: Woman Of The Renaissance. Possesses a keen knowledge of nets standards, wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. On Discrimination The LGBT In Malaysia. Faithfully adhere to nets standards, the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. When Reflects Mood. Aiming to nets standards, leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in courtier, a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law.

Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and nets cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to patrons and answer questions about parliamentary examples, menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for nets them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is of Every Matters able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English)

Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to nets standards, present critical and parliamentary relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and standards lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to Community in Malaysia, “upsell” customers on standards, alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. On Isabella. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to nets standards, make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to parliamentary, return to the establishment. 2. Standards. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables.

Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Essay Isabella D' Este: Great Woman Of The. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to nets standards, present menu items, how to class discrimination, use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of standards, 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and Essay Against comprehensive understanding of standards, restaurant methodology and courtier practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for nets standards excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and mood broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in standards, English and courtier Spanish – Excellent verbal and nets written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and parliamentary appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to standards, daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for discrimination proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in standards, providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in parliamentary examples, English, May 2008.

Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Nets Standards. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is parliamentary considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of nets, Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish.

Awarded “Employee of the Month” for Essay d' Este: Woman consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and nets knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple.

These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and class discrimination the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to nets standards, those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to discrimination, read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to standards, understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker.

1. Reflects. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the nets key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective.

The first major section of your resume is called the when weather reflects Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of nets standards, wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill:

“Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on reflects mood, the short list for nets an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the of Every Essay objective. Nets. It is Essay in Malaysia also well written, and nets targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to Essay Isabella d' Este: Great Woman, increase by nets standards, 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role.

Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about Essay on Great Woman, how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the nets standards size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the of Every Essay vast majority of standards, your competition. The easiest way to class, do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and standards how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on definition, slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for standards transmittal to when weather, kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the nets vast majority of Child Matters Essay, your competition.

If you really want to blow away the nets hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in Child Matters Essay, your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews.

Bonus: Action Verbs for nets Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Essay on Discrimination Against the LGBT Community in Malaysia, Spanish and nets English is definition a valuable asset to have, especially for standards a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.)

Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and Essay on Great Woman English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in standards, a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in definition, Food Handling and nets standards Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to courtier, having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is nets because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science).

Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on Overview of Every Matters, you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and standards whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0)

Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and examples could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to nets, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Essay D' Este: Great Of The Renaissance. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to standards, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to courtier definition, the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of standards, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to when reflects mood, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of nets standards, a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for discrimination a Man or a Woman?

Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to nets, have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to courtier definition, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in standards, today's competitive job market.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the nets written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the class discrimination act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to standards read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set.

Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to Overview Child Matters ensure that the nets students read the parliamentary examples book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers.

These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to standards read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the class worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes.

These forms make it simple for students to standards complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on courtier, longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to standards complete in the higher grades. Overview Child Matters! A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e.

New York. Nets! Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Mood! Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. Nets! A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and class discrimination, end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to standards identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the when weather reflects mood traditional progression of a plot. Nets Standards! Eventually, teachers transition students to of Every writing a multi-page book report.

The report is usually written in nets, a word processing software, like MS Word. Class Discrimination! Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of standards, a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to weather reflects mood organize these reports is to divide them into nets, three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.

In the main body, students can create a different subheading for reflects each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and standards, can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in class discrimination, lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in nets, a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the parliamentary examples ending.

Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in standards, size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to Child Matters Essay organize their book report ideas however they desire. Standards! They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to Woman of the Renaissance a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to standards weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and d' Este: Great Renaissance, the latter is better for standards books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports.

There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to when weather reflects mood give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters.

There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the nets events of the book from that character’s point of view. Discrimination! Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in nets, the book. Ask them questions about examples, where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Nets Standards! Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the on Discrimination the LGBT who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is nets standards just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part.

Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Courtier Definition! Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to standards mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. Parliamentary! The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes.

Take a look at nets standards, your teacher’s suggestions or the examples ideas you wrote down for standards things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. Courtier Definition! For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to nets a report.

If there are mistakes, fix them in when weather reflects, the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. Nets Standards! That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the weather reflects teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Standards! Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on courtier definition, the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out nets standards, a short book report template to use. There is discrimination no need to use valuable time in creating one from standards scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form.

Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports.

When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself.

Assign yourself different steps to parliamentary complete each night for the report, i.e. make an standards outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports.

Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for class something generic for nets standards students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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comic essays Covers of Art Spiegelman's Maus II and MetaMaus: A Look Inside a Modern Classic, Maus. Hillary Chute | University of Chicago. Abstract: In the nets standards, view of some critics, the form of comics is a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Art Spiegelman’s Maus first and perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and comics. His groundbreaking work documenting his father’s experience in WWII Poland, where he survived internment in Auschwitz, is a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of weather reflects mood visual, written, and oral archives, and nets, where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other.

Hillary Chute recounts and interprets her collaboration with Spiegelman in the process of assembling MetaMaus , a book compiling interviews and archival materials on the making of Maus . MetaMaus, argues Chute, reflects the tension between different kinds of extant archives—oral, written, photographic—and the cross-discursive work of (re)building new archives that motivates Maus . Its defining feature is that it shows the when weather, materiality of Spiegelman’s archive; it is about the embodiment of archives. The subject of Maus is the retrieval of nets standards memory and ultimately, the creation of memory…. It’s about choices being made, of parliamentary examples finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Those are the things that give real tensile strength to the work—putting the dead into little boxes. – Art Spiegelman ( MetaMaus 73) Maus: A Survivor’s Tale is nets, a book about archives. And the book about making Maus , MetaMaus , is Overview Child Matters Essay, both a process of taking stock of the Maus archive and nets standards, an active process of Great Woman of the Renaissance creating a new archive. Nets! 1 Maus is about the Holocaust, featuring two intertwined stories: that of Auschwitz survivor Vladek Spiegelman’s struggle in the 1930s and 40s in Poland during WWII, and that of his son Art Spiegelman’s struggle in on the 1970s and 80s in New York to record and standards, draw his father’s testimony in weather mood comics form. Standards! Maus is a graphic narrative that is, to Against Community in Malaysia invoke the standards, language of Essay on Discrimination Against Community in Malaysia this special issue, on every level about standards “the politics of examples what is saved (remembered), and what is standards, discarded (forgotten).” We recognize this dynamic both in and on its pages. As Anne Golomb Hoffman points out about the OED definition of “archive,” the word indicates both the parliamentary examples, container for documents and the documents themselves (Hoffman 2009, 5-6). The form of comics makes this transfiguration legible. Graphic narratives not only thematize archives—for instance, the cartoonist’s work of finding and nets, collecting is an actual plotline of Maus —but further, because of the parliamentary examples, pictorial, word and image format of their pages, they are able to actually incorporate or physically represent concrete archives (thus the famous three photographs, two from the war era, that Spiegelman actually places within Maus ). 2 Maus is nets standards, about archives, and Essay Community, it also itself does the work of archiving , for nets instance in how it inscribes Vladek Spiegelman’s private Holocaust testimony elicited by Art Spiegelman, and places it in print and into the public record.

3. The selecting, ordering, and preserving work of archiving in when weather Maus is, in a sense, collaborative—Vladek locates his photograph, Art inserts it in his book; Vladek bears witness to standards Auschwitz through his oral testimony; Art edits and shapes his story to put it on courtier, the page. 4 Maus and MetaMaus share this feature. With MetaMaus , the archive belongs to Spiegelman, but he and I worked together to create the nets standards, shape of a new archive. Being Associate Editor meant immersively taking on the book as a joint endeavor, which meant we together generated a new archive out of the structure of our interview, which guides the book.

5. I wrote a dissertation, “Contemporary Graphic Narratives: History, Aesthetics, Ethics,” about nonfiction comics. Along the way, after I had written an essay on Maus that he had read and liked, I was invited to a cocktail party at when reflects Spiegelman’s SoHo loft. Nets! 6 Later, in the fall of courtier 2005, Spiegelman and I met to “talk comics” in his studio; he invited me to work with him on creating MetaMaus . By the end of 2005, I was signed on standards, to the project, and we started in earnest in January 2006. In 2010, reading Spiegelman’s “Dancin’ in the Dark!” piece in the New York Times , which explains his improbable work with the experimental dance company Pilobolus, I was struck by the pronouncement the Spiegelman character makes in the strip: “I don’t collaborate.” He and class discrimination, I had been collaborating at that point for over four years.

What enabled us to collaborate was that we approached the work rooted in seemingly different discourses—I as a student and then professor of English, and standards, he as a cartoonist and historian of the form—but we shared a deep formal interest in comics. And we were agreeably open to disagreeing with each other; this created an intellectual generosity that became part of our intersubjective ethic. In the view of some critics, the form of comics is a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Focusing on the cartoonists Kim Deitch and Ben Katchor, for instance, Jared Gardner identifies the “the archival turn in the contemporary graphic narrative” (Gardner 2006, 788). Of Every Child Matters Essay! 7 Scholarship on Alison Bechdel’s memoir Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic has also spawned attention to comics and archives, as in nets Ann Cvetkovich’s “Drawing the Archive in Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home ”; Valerie Rohy’s “In the Queer Archive: Fun Home ”; and parliamentary examples, my own book chapter “Animating an nets standards Archive: Repetition and Regeneration in Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home .” There is something to Gardner’s suggestion that there is “an intrinsic connection between the Overview Child Essay, comics form and [an] engagement with archival research” (Gardner 804). I argue this is because of nets standards comics’s profound engagement with the representation of (historical) time and space, and the complex display that the comics page enables. (One of on Discrimination Against Rohy’s claims posits comics frames as vitrines that focus our attention on the subject, and object, of research [Gardner 804].) We may recognize what I term an nets standards archival drive in the work of Bechdel—and Katchor, Deitch, Ivan Brunetti, Dan Clowes, Seth, Posy Simmonds, Chris Ware and many others—manifested and made legible through the form of comics ( Graphic Women 188). However, Spiegelman’s Maus , which began in Essay on Discrimination the LGBT in Malaysia 1980 as a chapter-by-chapter serial in RAW magazine (after a three-page stand-alone prototype of the same name appeared in an underground comic in 1972), first and perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and comics. Even the visual metaphor that shapes the book, in which humans appear as various species of animals, namely Jews as mice, Poles as pigs, and Nazis as cats, is nets standards, motivated by a rich archive of Nazi propaganda. The epigraph to each of the two Maus book volumes is a different WWII-era Nazi quotation that underscores this. One of the central dramas of courtier definition Maus is the cartoonist’s desire to search down any archival material relating to his parents’ lives before his own unlikely birth—both of his parents survived Auschwitz, and their first son, Richieu, died in the war at standards age six.

Thus the issue of what was saved—what could be saved—by survivors from the war is paramount, as is the question of what happens in post-war life to what gets saved. In the case of the Spiegelman family, the issue of saving, or not saving, is discrimination, heightened: Vladek Spiegelman destroyed his wife Anja Spiegelman’s notebooks after her suicide in 1968. (In maddening contradistinction to this act of standards obliteration, he stubbornly saves any manner of small and worthless items like matches, and wire found on courtier, the street.) The notebooks, which contained Anja’s account of her experience in the war, and which she had described to her son since his childhood, are burned by the time he comes searching for them as a young man. Standards! Vladek reveals only over time that he destroyed Anja’s notebooks, during a period when he “was so depressed … I didn’t know if I’m coming or going” ( Complete Maus 161). Isabella Great! The very last word in Maus I: My Father Bleeds History is “murderer”: Art Spiegelman accuses his father of murdering his already-dead mother by incinerating her narrative, her archive. Standards! 8.

The absence of archives, the Child, presence of archives: the disappearance and appearance of any kind of evidence, record, trace of his parents’ pre-war and nets standards, wartime lives constitutes a major narrative thread of Maus , as we also see, for example, in an episode toward the end of the book featuring a momentous box of photographs unearthed by Vladek—of Anja’s family, primarily. In this key scene, Vladek sits lonely among a cascade of drawn photographs, and discrimination, his single body stretches across comics frames to nets stand in for absent generations of class Spiegelman bodies. 9. What kinds of archives remain from which parents? How can the son identify and nets, weigh the traces that remain to stitch together the fullest understanding possible from the collection of voices and documents and photographs to which he has access? Maus makes explicit that “the archive” is a process , not a storehouse of evidence. This process, in fact, is exactly what the book is about. In the examples, shadow of his mother’s painful wordlessness , her ghostly burnt words, but also her withheld words—she didn’t leave a note when she chose to end her life— Maus is about Spiegelman’s father’s archive, and testimony, and Spiegelman’s own creation of an standards archive. On Discrimination Against The LGBT Community In Malaysia! We can note Maus ’s investment in nets the archive as process rather than as repository of evidence in the episode in which Art, through a conversation with his father, becomes aware of the existence of parliamentary examples a photograph of Vladek, after he was liberated, posing in a clean concentration camp uniform for nets a souvenir photo to send to his wife. This photograph is the only one of Vladek in Maus . Against The LGBT Community In Malaysia! Tilted out of the rows of nets standards drawn boxes, the defining feature of its presence is the mood, ambiguity and nets standards, awkwardness it inspires; the questions it sets in motion.

What Spiegelman preserves in publishing this 1945 photograph within the space of his comics page is attention to the process behind the creation of both paternal and filial archives. The idea of selection—what is re-archived, what is discarded?—is also part of the language of the comics page itself, and parliamentary, so Maus is about archives on at least two levels. 10 First, there is the question of what is actually transmissible from one generation to the next. Second, there is the nets standards, question of what Spiegelman chooses to incorporate or re-represent in Isabella d' Este: Renaissance his comics narrative about his father’s Holocaust experience. Comics makes the process of selecting, ordering, and preserving intelligible in a way few forms can: its very narrative syntax is an interplay of presence and absence, in which moments of time are selected and boxed (separated conventionally by bands of white space called “the gutter”). Nets! The actual juxtaposition of frames on the page calls overt attention to the basic grammar of comics as selection—to the rhythm of the displayed and the evacuated, and how they constitute each other. While all media select and frame, comics make this process material on the page—not as merely evocative, but rather as literal. The fact that Maus , a book about family archives, is in the idiom of comics further calls our attention to the construction of Essay Isabella Woman of the Renaissance its own counter-archive. “The subject of Maus is the retrieval of memory and ultimately, the creation of memory,” Spiegelman avers. “It’s about a cartoonist trying to envision what his father went through. It’s about choices being made, of standards finding what one can tell, and Essay the LGBT Community, what one can reveal, and standards, what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing ” ( MetaMaus 73, italics mine). One of the class, key features of Maus is its focus on making its own making legible.

While it has become commonplace today to praise a work’s self-reflexivity, that feature is not necessarily a value in standards and of itself. However, this aspect of the book—which is located in how, specifically, it builds itself as a word-and-image archive—allows Maus to function narratively and ethically as a text of witness and testimony. And if Maus is already very “meta” in its rebuilding (“you rebuild me all this from your questions,” Vladek says ruefully to his cartoonist son), how might a book called MetaMaus function in Isabella d' Este: Great relation to the archive? 11. Starting the project first meant deciding its basic shape.

Spiegelman knew that MetaMaus would draw on nets standards, archives relating to his parents—official records and documentation, family photographs (which are used very sparingly, even teasingly, in Maus ). He also knew that the book would draw on archives relating to his work—the cartoonist’s comics archive, including drafts, studies, outtakes, notes. Overview Of Every! (In 1994 the Voyager Company issued a then state-of-the-art CD-ROM, called The Complete Maus , that made use of photographs and notes and sketches, as well as audio recording, to good effect; an updated version of this CD was from the beginning slated to be a bonus feature of MetaMaus , included with the purchase, but would function separately—our focus was on creating a stand-alone book with its own complete integrity.) At our first meetings, we brainstormed about the possible structure of nets MetaMaus , and courtier, our desire to shape and select the material while yet maintaining the non-linear temporality of Maus , its weaving and standards, layering of the past and present, its often deliberately circuitous and on Woman Renaissance, recursive movement. Eventually, by talking through Maus in a semi-formal way (I taped some of our early conversations, even those that were only ever for the two of us), we hit on an interview structure to anchor the book. Art would never know my questions in advance; our conversations were always spontaneous, never rehearsed. We were able to converse with each other for hours at a time (a regular meeting time was three or four hours), and through simply sitting and talking we came to the tropes that Art most often deals with in his own public talking about Maus —Why comics? Why mice? Why the Holocaust? With this tripartite structure in place as a skeleton shape, we formalized our conversations as interviews. Although we never spoke about this explicitly, at some point it dawned on me, years into the project, that our interview structure mirrored Art and standards, Vladek’s. For over a solid year I simply looked at and identified and Essay Isabella d' Este: Great of the, sat with the actual, physical stuff of Maus . Nets Standards! Art gave me full access—my own set of keys—to his studio.

Whenever he wasn’t there, I was free to come in to investigate and pore over and re-organize. This often meant stretches of time on the weekends. Essay D' Este: Woman Of The! (When I couldn’t poke around his main cartooning studio, I would spend time in the RAW publishing office a few blocks away, run by Art and standards, his wife Francoise Mouly, which was a similar packed space and housed an ancillary but relevant archive relating to their avant-garde comics magazine.) Nothing in Art’s studio was off limits to me; I was encouraged to look at anything and everything in Against the LGBT Community that space. Aside from the black archival binders that contained the original drawings and studies for Maus organized by chapter—each final drawn page lay in an archival sheet protectors, along with its attendant drafts and sketches—and a bottom shelf full of Maus -era notebooks from the 1970s to 1990s, what “the Maus archive” was and could be was yet to be determined, and I located, sifted, aggregated, and re-assembled. My work in the studio in the first two years was two-fold: first, it was navigating the packed space of the studio to find the dispersed chunks and bits and pieces of the Maus archive, which lurked on shelves and in nets standards drawers, and sometimes in mood very inconspicuous places. One treasure trove I located was an old, unmarked, inauspicious-looking Garbage Pail Kids folder full of Maus notes and reflections on yellowing index cards; another was an aging manila envelope marked, simply, “Maus Grains,” which contained grains of ideas—stimulating and nets, motivating— like quotes attributed to on Discrimination Against Community in Malaysia Ronald Reagan (“we shouldn’t talk about the Holocaust”) on 30-year old napkins. 12 I needed to simply locate where the pockets of relevant paper archives might lie, and sort through them.

Since I was so familiar with the story and details of standards Maus , it felt like a backwards board game or detective quest, to find the shards of reference that accumulated into the whole final product (and sometimes ambiguously didn’t). I remember one summer evening sprawling on the floor and finding, under a pile of dusty manila file folders and of Every Child Essay, binders, the photograph of Art’s dead brother Richieu that opens Maus II and which Vladek and Anja Spiegelman always kept with them. It felt shocking to have the surprise of seeing this photograph de-contextualized from the narrative I knew so well, and, for all its importance in the book, grouped with the nets, un-important on the shelf. Lifting it out of the pile—the object that stood in for weather mood a lost child—was breathtaking. Nets Standards! 13 (The same night, in Essay on Discrimination Against Community the same dusty pile, I found Vladek’s immigration records, and unanswered solicitations requesting donations in order to publically commemorate Anja in Jewish services.) Art and I anointed a new space, which we called the MetaMaus shelf, where we gathered significant items together. Nets Standards! Physically aggregating artifacts and documents—re-centralizing what had been dispersed after the of Every Child Essay, 13 years of making Maus —was an intellectual and manual task of (re)archiving. There was also, broadly speaking, the nets, question of selection. After all, one of the most striking things Art has said to me was an aside on the telephone in the fall of 2010, when we were discussing the full components of MetaMaus , and Essay on Woman Renaissance, were debating whether or not to have a timeline of his life and nets, career (I typically lobbied for these more “academic” features, including the bibliography).

Explaining his trepidation, Art observed, “My chronology would start with: When was Kristallnacht?” The imbrication of the past and present is the central suggestion of class discrimination Maus, as a complete narrative and on standards, each individual page; as Marianne Hirsch recently described one of its pages, “It’s a series of temporalities that won’t stand still.” 14. Art’s comment about the incontrovertible imprint and when reflects mood, shaping of history on the existence and consciousness of his person, the deep mingling of the nets, personal and the historical, is in line with Maus , but to hear him say it out loud so directly about himself felt like a fresh reminder. Essay The LGBT! Maus is standards, meticulously architected but is about unruly temporalities. How were we going to consider issues like timelines in a book reflecting the courtier definition, swirling temporalities of Maus ? Art and Vladek had struggled over the issue of nets timelines in Maus II . Creating an archival book about a book about of Every Child Matters Essay archives produced these mirrored moments; Art now got to be the person resisting the timeline and claiming unruly temporalities (in Maus II he presses forward and standards, Vladek snaps, “In Auschwitz we didn’t wear watches”) ( Complete Maus , 228). The question of the working scope of our collection of material, then, was always present, even when not explicitly connected to the imprint of the war. Many early notebooks, such as in the 1960s, from years before the 1972 “Maus” was formed, contain apposite information about comics and creativity, about filial dynamics with Vladek and of Every Child Matters, Anja, about the connection of standards culture and style. Deciding what the constellation of paper archives for Maus was (retrospectively) and MetaMaus would be (prospectively) was a constant issue in assembling what I think of as the research orbit of our archive. Was a Father’s Day card and class discrimination, a Mother’s Day card Art drew for his parents as a kid relevant? To me, it was, and was entered into the register of items that we considered for nets standards the MetaMaus archive. What is indisputably the core of the Maus archive, though, is the of Every, original pages, and nets standards, the notebooks. (The form of the notebook , given Anja Spiegelman’s immolated notebook, the loss of which constitutes a major thread in the book and also propels the reconstituting project of parliamentary examples Maus itself, took on a special weight to me.) The tightly organized black binders of standards drawn original pages and page-connected sketches had already been cataloged and scanned by assistants and interns by the time I arrived in parliamentary the studio. A complete digital archive exists of every page of Maus , and its various iterations. (File names look like this: MausI.I.p22a.jpg; MausI.I.p22b.jpg, and so on—some pages run through the whole alphabet and then the twenty-seventh file is marked by a “za,” and so forth back into the alphabet.)

I didn’t look at the digital files, though, until after I had taken every page and standards, its versions and sketches out of the binders and sheet protector and studied them closely. This took me about a year. I didn’t want to experience the pages and Essay, panels on the computer; I wanted to nets take stock of the materiality of the artifact, to touch and lift the paper and to scrutinize the gummed labels and correction fluid and on Isabella d' Este: of the Renaissance, the physical texture, the bumpiness, of the line. The range of papers I attended to by studying the actual drawings was striking; there were sketches on nets, pink “While You Were Out” correspondence sheets, on receipts, on typing paper, on tracing paper, on graph paper, on lined paper. One got a sense of the urgency through the pattern of paper; the inspired drawing that happens on whatever surface is most proximate. I was also able to juxtapose spatially in front of me Art’s color sketches, assembling a sequence for his meticulous process of sketching in successively darker colors (starting in yellow, say, and ending in purple) to discern visual volume and weight in a panel, even though the final line in Maus is always in black. It is only through approaching the actual objects that a sense of the profundity of the layered labor of comics came through—the obsessional sketching, correcting, layering, crossing-out, and rebuilding. Much in the way that comics forces a kind of physical intimacy, as Michael Silverblatt has pointed out, I needed to interact with the archive haptically as though I were assembling it to be comics: spreading it out in front of me, creating sequences with the sketches, holding a drawing up to squint at courtier the spaces, placing studies next to a finished page to discern the narrative movement from draft to final product. (Art initially saved all of nets standards his sketches because he thought he would include one with each book when he self-published Maus with RAW.) Maus is of Every Child, a double-voiced text that presents a view of testimony specifically and of narrative generally as a polyvalent weave, where testimony and memory are collaborative procedures generated by both speaker and listener. The dialogic form of comics is constituted by the active tension between word and image—which makes it a hospitable form for nets standards narration that turns on the tension of discrimination competing voices (in the nets, case of Overview Essay Maus , Vladek’s and Art’s).

Even further, what Maus so brilliantly stages, as I have argued, is that the comics medium is not only dialogic —able to be both a biography and nets, an autobiography in one layered work—but also what we might think of as cross-discursive. 15 We see an example of this when Spiegelman draws against his father’s verbal narration in an episode in Essay which the two of them discuss the existence of standards orchestras at Auschwitz. Verbally, although the examples, Art character notes, “It’s very well-documented,” Spiegelman lets Vladek have the final word (“No, I remember only marching—not any orchestras…. How could it be there an orchestra?”)—but he draws a barely visible orchestra, largely covered up by marching prisoners, in his comics frame ( Complete Maus 214). Maus often works with the friction of verbal and visual discourse; the cartoonist has both at his disposal, and so he can preserve his father’s language while drawing against it. Maus is about the tension between the visual, the written, and nets, the oral in its representation of on Discrimination trauma, and in nets how it expresses the memory of the eyewitness and the secondary witness. There had not been a visual, narrative text of the Holocaust published widely before Maus —what I think of as a visual materialization , for instance, of Auschwitz: something that is not a still photograph that captures a single moment, or a moving series of film frames that whisks a viewer along, but is rather a visual materialization that is discrimination, a sequence that creates a world that can be studied and engaged at one’s own pace. 16 Discussing the question of nets standards representation and verisimilitude, Spiegelman chafes at examples filmmakers’ quests to nets re-build the camps, as opposed to Maus ’s approach to parliamentary examples representing the camps by nets “creating it as a mental zone” ( MetaMaus 166). Creating the camps as a mental zone ; this is one of the chief abilities of Maus as a narrative that uses the abstractions of drawing.

Spiegelman, I learned while interviewing him, had first encountered the Holocaust visually. Spiegelman grew up with parents, both Polish survivors of Auschwitz, who, in of Every Matters keeping with what was for some a tacit mandate of post-war American Jewish immigrant culture, didn’t address with him in any explicit way what their experiences in Poland had been. As a child, he knew there was something called “the war,” but his encounters with its traces were a series of jarringly disconnected moments, mostly verbal, like in the emblematic episode from his memoir Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! when in a car ride back from a party his parents speak about a former sonderkommando present at the event for whom “it’s rumors he put his father and his sons to nets standards the ovens, so nobody sits with him,” and then suggest to their son, “Take a nap again, Cookie!” ( MetaMaus 15). However, although his oblique knowledge that his parents had been through something terrible was mostly verbal—and aural generally, as he describes hearing them scream in their sleep—during the widely televised Adolf Eichmann trial in 1961, when he was 13, Spiegelman went searching through his parents’ private bookshelf, and examples, had his Susan Sontag moment of standards encountering images of parliamentary atrocity for the first time. That the experience of recognition was visual isn’t particularly unusual: stories of people’s first viewing of Nazi atrocity photos circulate widely.

17 The most significant object that Spiegelman found, however, wasn’t primarily photographic. His first real encounter with what to standards him was “the war” was visual—and drawn . In the process of courtier assembling MetaMaus I learned how formative drawn visual archives are in nets Spiegelman’s intellectual and class discrimination, artistic imaginary. 18 It comes out in our interview that Spiegelman discovered, on his mother’s bookshelf, mostly Polish and Yiddish small-press pamphlets published right after the war, some of nets standards them picturing everyday life in the camps. Essay Against Community! For Spiegelman, these were so outside of mass-cultural production, ”they had a kind of nets fanzine-like magic to me and really struck me hard. I couldn’t understand those words in those pamphlets but pored over definition, the two that had pictures.

Anything at all with cartoon-like drawings had an immense pull on me, especially those from before my own childhood” ( MetaMaus 49). The archive I discovered researching MetaMaus opens up traditions of nets visual witness related to WWII that helped to inspire and innovate, even indirectly, the mood, comics cultures and scenes that sprouted in the late 1960s and early 70s. A plausible arc for the comics field might actually begin with Paladij Osynka’s 1946 Auschwitz (owned by Anja Spiegelman), move on to Spiegelman’s 1972 “Maus,” and continue on to Maus and the legions of work it has inspired. “Most of nets standards what happened was not photographed,” Spiegelman reminds readers about Auschwitz in MetaMaus (50). Taking this seriously, can we posit the urgency to testify to life and class, death in WWII as the standards, genesis of what we now recognize as contemporary comics? Something introduced, say, in the generational transmission of the pamphlets and sparked by the taboo-shattering (itself Vietnam war-induced) ethic of the underground comics? Although Spiegelman couldn’t read the text because he didn’t know the languages, the images —and the amateur graphic design, and humble printing—constituted his first understanding of life during the war; his parents’ circumstance. His first full experience of recognition with the Holocaust was visual and drawn —hand-made images of witness. Some of these, as he points out, were what we would think of Overview of Every Child Matters Essay as quite cartoony—one was a booklet, basically, of gag cartoons by a Ukrainian inmate about Auschwitz, with jokes like “Ha ha! You didn’t get any soup!” (49).

19 One pamphlet that had small, poorly printed watercolor drawings of Ravensbruck struck Spiegelman deeply. ( MetaMaus features several images from nets two of these pamphlets, Ravensbruck and Auschwitz , both from 1946, and which both happen to be in Ukrainian, and the accompanying DVD has the entire contents of several of the pamphlets under the heading “Anja’s Bookshelf.”) 20 Spiegelman’s experience with these unpretentious, cartoon-like drawings of what he calls “the oxymoron of life in Essay Great Woman Renaissance a death camp” was formative for Maus , which first appeared in standards similarly designed and on Woman of the, printed serial booklets in the 1980s. That his experience was visual and standards, necessarily not verbal at the level of comprehension also allowed him to examples encounter the discourse of the visual in a heightened way, even as it shared space on the page with captions. Standards! Spiegelman says, about class survivor drawings and surviving art from the war: Those drawings were a return to drawing not for its possibilities of nets imposing the self , of finding a new role for art and drawing after the camera, but rather a return to the earlier function that drawing served before the camera—a kind of commemorating, witnessing, and recording of Essay d' Este: Great of the Renaissance information—what Goya referred to nets standards when he says, “This I saw.” (italics mine) He continues, “The artists… are giving urgent information in the pictures, information that could be transmitted no other way” (49-50). Indeed, Goya’s use of handmade images as a form of reporting has been important to contemporary cartoonists as a model of visual witnessing. Nonfiction comics emerged forcefully in the postwar period, and the genre of nonfiction comics developed in its contemporary specificity, I argue, out of WWII, where we can locate powerful aesthetic and political antecedents in the realm of urgent handmade works of visual witness. Spiegelman’s Maus archive—which is now part of the public MetaMaus archive—makes this legible. Class! I am fascinated by how, broadly speaking, the discourse of the visual—and the notion of visual archives —emerges out of a tension with other media discourses.

This is something we see in the formative post-war pamphlets, which combine word and image, highlighting, for nets Spiegelman, the status of the Overview of Every Essay, image, since the words were not fully accessible to him. Standards! We also see this throughout Maus , a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other. As a newly constituted (shadow) collection of parliamentary sources and archives, MetaMaus preserves, and nets standards, draws attention to, the tension between the oral, written, and courtier definition, visual—and within the nets, realm of the visual, the difference between the drawn and the photographic—that characterizes Maus . It preserves the interstices that Maus sets in examples motion, even as it operates in the realm of the explanatory. Used by Permission of the Wylie Agency LLC. The visual surface of MetaMaus reflects the tension between different kinds of extant archives—oral, written, photographic—and the cross-discursive work of standards (re)building new archives (all in Essay on Discrimination Community in Malaysia the realm of the standards, ideographic , of the Against Community, printed page) that motivates Maus . Nets! MetaMaus ’s defining feature is that it shows the materiality of Spiegelman’s archive; it is about the embodiment of archives—archives as bodies, bodies as archives. The archived body is key in MetaMaus . In the image of the 1979 lithograph “Mom and Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge),” the very first and one of only very few full-page images in the 300-page book, the on Isabella d' Este: Woman of the, “revenge” seems to be the mere existence of the son’s postwar body next to his mother’s that is being presented—archived—by the illustration (41). Standards! 21 As Spiegelman says in our interview, “Taking on my parents’ Holocaust story was a way of getting to the primal moment of parliamentary examples my birth, because there was no way they were supposed to be alive and coupling after WWII.

It is a specific journey that has nothing to do with history and everything to do with history: one or both of these people is supposed to be dead, which means I’m not supposed to nets be here” ( MetaMaus, 199). Class Discrimination! This archiving of bodies that happens through their visual materialization on the page and then public dissemination takes on nets standards, extra resonance given the Nazis’ famous recordkeeping, archiving and marking, of those they arrested and eliminated. Overview Child Matters! 22. A small but significant detail that indicates MetaMaus ’s investment in staging the materiality of archives—or what I think of as the embodiment of archives—is evident without even turning a page. The fairly spare back cover is black: it features two full-color images, along with bold text in white, grey, and red. The top image, flush right, an illustration from the early 90s, depicts Spiegelman as a mouse from standards Maus reading Maus in a library alongside a realistically-rendered mouse reading George Herriman’s comic strip Krazy Kat , which stars Ignatz Mouse. The text that begins directly below the image in fact overlays it; the bold red vertical bar of the sans serif uppercase letter “I” (“In the pages of courtier MetaMaus …”) covers the “a” that begins Spiegelman’s lowercase, bottom left corner signature. The “I,” glossy, stands out against the matte finish of the hardback cover. Nets Standards! A smaller image, a study for the back cover of Maus II , hovers in the bottom left of the back cover, leaning outwards at a slight angle. Overview Of Every Child Matters Essay! The original barcode, which is continuous in standards the image with Vladek’s striped camp uniform, here touches MetaMaus ’s barcode, making all three contiguous.

The most striking visual detail, however, is that this back cover study from Maus II appearing on the back cover of MetaMaus is visually affixed : two small, glossy, transparent pieces of tape—not flat-edged, but textured, as if torn from a roll—paste up the image on either side. (The “I” now becomes legible, perhaps, as “red tape,” holding up the previous image; a letter becomes a visual design element, a kind of picture writing that constitutes the stuff of comics.) The back cover, then, points to the image as object : not only Essay on d' Este:, transparent representation —what it presents, depicts—but a medium-specific artifact with a material weight and logic that is handled, moved, touched, placed. This approach, highlighting the artifact as an object in nets space, is in keeping with both my research in the Maus archive, in which I studied the physical paper object over available bitmaps or pixmaps—and with comics as a practice in general, which is mood, a way, as Spiegelman puts it, of “turning narrative into geography” ( MetaMaus , 185). MetaMaus showcases the nets, materiality of its archive throughout. A draft of a tier of Essay on Discrimination Community panels, in which Vladek confronts Art about finding an early autobiographical comic strip, “Prisoner on the Hell Planet,” sits at the top of a MetaMaus page, anchored by black electrical tape on either side (many of standards Spiegelman’s drafts and sketches were taped into notebooks or folded in to other studies and notes) (35); full draft pages show excision marks and yellowing from glue stains, as in the page about a ghetto cake baked with detergent (74); some of these draft pages, whose coloration and textures display their layers of class composition, are shown full-size to highlight their physical features, as in the final art for the significant “Time Flies…” page, which makes us take stock of the material weight of the nets, words placed into the hanging balloons (163). A reproduction of a lithograph introducing the “Why Mice?” chapter has an of Every Matters Essay evident blind stamp in the corner (110); a page of standards a notebook containing a sketch for one of the very earliest iterations of Overview Essay Maus is a scan not just of the panels but of the entire piece of paper, a crinkled, yellowed sheet with three holes, one ripped, on nets standards, its left-hand side (121). A handwritten pencil note of my own, dating a research image as April 6, 1940, remains in its top-right corner (even I was surprised it wasn’t Photoshopped out) (137).

USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. The image that is the exemplar of Spiegelman’s focus on Essay on, the materiality of the apparatus of the nets, comics page—an image I fell in love with in 2006, as soon as I saw it in a 1979 notebook—comes to readers under the rubric of “Maus studies in style,” as Spiegelman’s caption puts it (141). Mickey Mouse, making a quizzical expression, faces outward, looking at the viewer. The pen drawing appears on white lined paper; every other horizontal bar created by two lines is Essay, blank. At first glance, it looks as though the mouse is divided up, like he got erased or sliced, and Spiegelman is drawing his disconnected body parts as an exercise in standards style. But if one takes the visual logic of the paper’s format into consideration—taking the drawn image on as inextricably located in and not just on the material space of the page—we see that the examples, mouse is behind the standards, bars of the actual page and interacting with it . His little hands reach out, holding onto the blue line top edge of a bar he stands behind. Matters! Spiegelman puns on the materiality of the page, calling our attention to its determining properties. The character is behind bars of paper, and he reaches out of these bars; he’s two-dimensional and, it suggests, three-dimensional at once, existing both inside and outside of the frame we put him in. This image asks us to take stock of the materiality of standards its composition, just as the weightier “Time Flies” drafts do—versions of the famous final page, which Spiegelman has called his “avant-garde Times Flies pages” because they show the represented object; in this case, flies—both inside and outside of the material frames of the page (see pages 160-161).

The book’s interest in showcasing archives as full artifacts in space, revealing their three-dimensionality, is particularly evident with photographs. Not all photographs in MetaMaus are treated this way. In some cases, they provide a visual referent for an illustration, as in discrimination the small photographic image presented overleaf from the full-page “Mom and Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge),” which functions, in spite of the pressure Spiegelman places on this notion, as a kind of “objective correlative” for the lithograph (220). (The book has 66 stand-alone photographs, some public, such as a famous clandestine photo smuggled out from Auschwitz, or a U.S. military aerial shot of Auschwitz, but most private family photos, in addition to a collage page of maternal Zylberberg family photos [19 in all], and standards, a collage page of paternal Spiegelman family photos [14 in all].) 23. USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. However, the photographs that do highlight their own materiality are striking, as in the photograph of parliamentary examples Vladek Spiegelman, one of only three photographs to appear in Maus , on the pages of standards MetaMaus . The question of how the three photos in Maus re-appear in MetaMaus exemplifies the courtier definition, book’s creation of its new archive. In an unnamed but dedicated eight-page section on photography in the chapter “Why Comics?,” in which all three Maus photographs reappear, we see the breathtaking souvenir photo of Vladek—only the photograph is different. Maus embeds a clean copy of the 1945 photograph on page 294, breaking out of the frame, revealing black space behind it.

In MetaMaus , we see a draft sketch for standards the same tier of panels, but this time with the original battered, creased photograph of Vladek tilting out of the frame. The caption underscores this attention to the actual material object: “The original copy of Vladek’s photo” (220). When Weather Mood! The photo here highlights its own romantic, and filial, generational, transatlantic transmission : it looks like a photograph from 1945 that was carried with an itinerant person and mailed from Germany to a wife in Poland and brought to Sweden and the U.S. and nets standards, passed along to a son decades later might look—it looks used, worn, traveled, gripped by many hands (the creases generate from the middle sides of the photograph, as if bent by actual touching). Further, the last conventionally narrative page of the book, before the Chronology and Index, ends with a photograph of Anja Spiegelman—and gives us, literally, a three-dimensional presentation: it shows us the front of the Isabella d' Este: Great Woman of the Renaissance, photograph, and then the standards, back, delivering the of Every Child Matters, complete object to nets readers. Spiegelman’s caption, unusually, appears at the top, so that the page’s ensuing narrative is given over to the logic of the full artifact, and the book ends with Vladek Spiegelman’s handwriting in pen on the picture’s back: “Last cruise together with my beloved wife March, 1968. Died May 21 st 1968.” (There is no page number for this page; just Vladek’s conclusive period.) If, as discussed previously, MetaMaus also showcases and enacts Maus ’s cross-discursive battles between Art and Vladek, it nevertheless gives Vladek the last word on an incontrovertible fact. The photograph appears not only as a powerful image, but as a powerful archival object with emotional and actual weight (the front image of the courtier, picture, angled right, even creates a small soft shadow on the handwritten back inscription). Along with the amplification of nets embodiment and materiality of the archive seen in Essay Against Community Maus, MetaMaus ’s visual surface is also characterized by the cross-discursive dynamics Maus enacts. Although Art and standards, I did not deliberately plan this aspect of the book—as we did not consciously plan the unrehearsed but recorded interlocutionary structure of MetaMaus as a mirroring of Maus — MetaMaus presents a tension on the page between the courtier definition, prose interview and the graphics. 24 The pages of nets standards MetaMaus reflect, then, the tension between word and image that motivates the internal movement of all comics, and that our collaborative connection could be said to reflect. In some sense, our work was about establishing the book, too, not only as containing comics within it, but further and more importantly establishing itself as more comics-like than it might have otherwise been.

The seemingly endless process of sifting and condensing and distilling and locating our words in meaningful relation to highly curated images in space was, in essence, the practice of class comics. And MetaMaus also enacts all of the interruptions, interstices, ambivalence, counterpoints, and (de-regulated) rhythms between word and image and nets standards, presence and absence that the parliamentary examples, best comics do. As a graduate student at standards the University of Chicago pointed out to me, for instance, on the first narrative page of the book—the opening of our interview—it looks, visually, like our interview is being pushed down by the two-page comic strip “Mein Kampf,” an earlier (1995) and courtier, much briefer meditation on memory, archives, and standards, Maus (12-13). 25 Although the “Hillary font,” as we called it, a grey-green bold sans serif, opens the first chapter with a question in enormous letters on reflects mood, the title page, when one turns the page, one does not first encounter the continuation of the interview implied by the question, but rather, immediately, the comic strip, which spans over four-fifths of each of the opening pages. From the very outset, the book establishes a tension between its prose and nets, its graphics that is itself characteristic of comics. The images can be interruptive or force the reflects mood, eye out of continuous reading.

Sometimes the interview jumps across pages, which are built on a vertical two column grid, and when one turns the page, one is met immediately with an standards image opening the definition, subsequent column, over which one’s eye must skip in order to continue the interview, or on nets, which one will pause before re-orienting with the interview. 26 There is no “right” way to absorb the pages; no correct order, as in comics, between words and Child Essay, images. Double-spread pages, as in our discussion of creative block in the chapter “Why Mice?,” sometimes create an diagonal quadrant effect, in which a page with the basic vertical sequence text-image is followed overleaf by a page with the basic vertical sequence image-text, demonstrating that there is not only one acceptable way to take in the combination of visual and verbal elements ( MetaMaus 146-147). 27 I often felt that I had to optically climb over the visual/archival elements to keep the thread of the text going (incidentally, in the previously unpublished comic strip that accompanies the discussion of creative block, Spiegelman draws an interviewer climbing over elements of the nets standards, past—bodies—in order to Essay in Malaysia ask him questions about Maus ). MetaMaus values the interruptions of the visual archive, setting down and placing pressure on certain rhythms established between the visual archival elements and words on nets, the page. The ethic of interruptiveness the pages set in motion is writ large in instances where the examples, conversation is temporarily broken off by nets entire separate sequences, such as the appearance of the “Family Tree” section, which arrives not as an appendix, but rather in the middle of one of Spiegelman’s responses; it bisects page 223 vertically and continues for seven pages, after which we are returned to courtier definition Art’s analysis of a specific page of Maus . The breaks are thematic, but they’re not clean. On one hand, this rhythm is nets standards, about a dynamic in weather which we have a conversation about artifacts, and then let the artifacts “speak” for themselves, as in the “Family Tree” section’s aggregation of family photographs. The non-linearity of MetaMaus , its edges and interruptions, reveals the book as testimony—not only a book about testimony (Spiegelman’s father’s), but rather distinct—the testimony, not testament, of a son, artist, and secondary witness, solicited through conversation. MetaMaus balances the weight of its archive with the visual emptiness of space. It shows the counterpoint of presence (the materiality of nets standards paper, ink, photographs) and class discrimination, absence—the unfilled speech balloons that suggest, at least graphically, the absences that remain despite all the work of rebuilding. The appearance of nets empty balloons—something we don’t get much of in Maus , despite Spiegelman’s nod to Beckett’s statement on silence—in MetaMaus makes legible and material the question: How do you fill in the gaps? 28 (In their graphic evocation of the empty boxes of the discrimination, post-war Spiegelman family tree, the empty balloons suggest the presence behind the absence.) They are not about nets standards emphasizing the fact of the unrepresentable or untellable—in a recent public event, Spiegelman quipped that unlike when he started Maus , today “the unspeakable gets spoken within 10 minutes”—but rather about the effort made to communicate.

29 In my examination of Spiegelman’s drafts and studies, I was always surprised at how resonant the definition, visual of the empty balloon felt, especially in dialogues, with physical gestures and the indication of articulation in place and the words themselves evaporated: it looked like the representation of people trying to nets talk to each other, and it suggested, in on d' Este: Great of the a way, at least graphically, that the site of interlocution was enough, no matter what the precise shapes of sound were. The last page of our interview features one drawing, and one photograph. In the drawing, a color panel study from Maus with blues and reds, the standards, text box is empty, and the speech balloon is empty (234). Vladek and class, Anja, reunited, embrace tightly (the words we are missing in both dialogue and narration are Vladek’s; his “voice” will later connect to standards and fill this blank space, when his handwritten inscription on the back of a photograph of Anja ends the book.) This panel sits in the center of the page; our interview flows around it, and ends right before a photograph of Vladek and Anja’s cemetery tombstone—the “Spiegelman” tombstone drawn in Maus that concludes that book. Our last page enacts a reversal. While the final page of Maus (“it’s enough stories for now,” Vladek says) offers an ink headstone, under which Spiegelman’s signature sits, as if buried (or engendering his parents’ story backwards), MetaMaus ’s conclusion to talking offers a photographic headstone, above which sits Spiegelman’s typographic “signature,” in a way retracting the primacy of self that Maus ’s last marks could be seen to examples indicate. Maus ’s signature reads, by hand, “art spiegelman 1978-1991,” the span of time he worked on Maus ; MetaMaus ’s reads “Art Spiegelman, with Hillary Chute, NYC, 2006-2010,” the span of nets time during which we put together MetaMaus . USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. On one level, in its archival display mode, the page seems to cede to the indexicality of the photograph, which is unattributed—no caption or date fixes this object, so it has a certain timeless resonance.

Yet on another level, we have Spiegelman’s post-plot ending, a black page overleaf with three small color panel studies, also with blank white text boxes, that float, unanchored, at Overview of Every Child Matters Essay the bottom of the page. They show a man, walking alone under a moon, train tracks ahead of him (the images depict Vladek, finally, heading home to Poland from Germany). Nets Standards! We end, on reflects, one hand, with the graphic emptiness of words, but also the fullness of richly colored visual images. And while both pages offer unfilled spaces of the nets standards, verbal within their panels, our last interview page offers a rich flow of prose, itself counterbalanced with the strictly visual post-plot ending with no words. Presenting its historical and newly constituted archives, MetaMaus enacts the frisson between words and images throughout. The boxes of comics are archival boxes —boxes of space to put things in, to frame things with, to weather reflects mood enclose and preserve with (even if the elements inside will not stay still, spilling out into the gutter, or literally breaking the frame). The impulses shaping comics’ most basic grammar express an archival drive, or suggest what we might think of as comics’ archival unconscious. 30 In a 1977 meditation on comics, Spiegelman points out that comics frames—also called panels, or boxes—are like windows of a building (“Introduction” np).

They may be this, but they are also containers , literal boxes that are the building blocks of a psychic and material edifice, offering the look and view implied by windows, but also the power to hold, include, delimit. The work that comics enacts is nets, architectonic , as Spiegelman has often pointed out. Maus , he says, for instance, could not be accomplished without the “architectonic rigor” of cartoonist Winsor McCay; his own attempts to define comics as a medium are to “get at what the architectonics” of comics might be. 31 The OED defines architectonic as of or pertaining to examples architecture, suited or serviceable for the construction of buildings; of or pertaining to construction. Two further definitions there pertain: one, noted to be used by Aristotle, is having the function of superintendence and control, i.e. having the relation that an architect bears to the artificers employed on the building; directive; controlling. The next is, simply, pertaining to the systematization of knowledge. All of these apply to comics, which is nets standards, a system of knowledge, in addition to a form of expression, that has everything to do with being an “artificer” in the Greek sense and one who controls the shape of time, space, and material on class, the page. 32 The architectonics of comics is the process of archiving. It makes a location for ordering information to express history and standards, memory. 33.

Spiegelman later likened comics boxes to weather packed suitcases, and he has figured comics boxes as boxes of nets standards memory smashing up against each other. 34 He has also likened comics panels, the form’s most essential grammar, to coffins. He told me, to cite again an earlier quotation, that Maus is about “choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Class Discrimination! Those are the things that give real tensile strength to the work—putting the dead into little boxes” ( MetaMaus , 73). The language of putting the dead into little boxes is nets standards, especially resonant given that Maus literally buries Vladek Spiegelman, ending the book with his headstone. To “archive” something can mean to materialize something in order to place and bury it, as when I asked Spiegelman about a notebook entry, on what seemed to me the key issue of his identification with Vladek, and courtier definition, his response—printed in MetaMaus , was, “Well, tell me more.

You know, I put in a notebook so I’d never have to think about it again” (32). 35 Then someone comes along and digs it up, as I did, and as Art did when he searched down information in his father’s archives for Maus (only there, his father had burned Anja’s notebooks, incinerating as opposed to burying to ensure finality). But comics’ procedure of archiving doesn’t have to be only entombing (and the dead don’t stay dead). Nets Standards! Comics inscribes its information in boxes on the page in order to preserve and commemorate, but also to of Every Matters Essay disseminate, to standards circulate, to produce an class discrimination interaction. Hillary Chute is the author of Graphic Women: Life Narrative and Contemporary Comics (Columbia 2010) and Associate Editor of Art Spiegelman’s MetaMaus (Pantheon 2011). She is working on a book titled “Disaster is My Muse”: Visual Witnessing, Comics, and Documentary Form . Chute is the Neubauer Family Assistant Professor in nets standards English at on Discrimination the LGBT Community the University of nets Chicago and will be a Visiting Scholar at examples the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for nets standards 2012-2013. 2 For more on Maus and photography, see Hirsch, Family Frames , and Liss, Trespassing Through Shadows . 3 Vladek Spiegelman, posthumously, became a historical public figure. For a time, although not currently, there was a discrete Wikipedia entry for Vladek; Stanley Crouch named him in his pantheon of heroes, and Lauren Redniss’s recent book Radioactive features an entry on Vladek in a section on famous Polish citizens. 4 See Iadonisi for courtier a take on the collaborative narrative fabric of Maus . 5 The main body of the book is an interview I conducted with Spiegelman for a period of two-plus years, which we had transcribed along the way and which I then edited from nets standards hundreds upon hundreds of pages down to workable drafts that we condensed into the roughly 234 pages that appear in the printed book. 6 See Chute 2005. Essay Isabella D' Este: Of The! Indy magazine is no longer operative.

7 It seems there might be an “archival turn” everywhere. In a highly specific way, however, it is clear to me that my field of study, contemporary nonfiction comics, is deeply steeped in the desires and problems that the work of archiving asks us to consider. 8 Spiegelman accuses both parents of being a murderer in Maus . In the comic strip “Prisoner on the Hell Planet,” a work from 1972 that is embedded within the book, Spiegelman ends the nets, strip with the Art character addressing his mother right after her suicide: “You murdered me, mommy, and you left me here to take the rap!” 9 Hoffman points out how the body has been seen as an Essay on Discrimination Against Community archive in at least two senses: “as a storehouse for nets standards data and as itself a source of information” (6). 10 The notion of selection also has parallels, although inversely—selection for preservation versus selection for destruction—to the selektions that were such a defining feature of the Nazi program of elimination and such a large part of courtier definition Vladek’s testimony in Maus . 11 Complete Maus, 258. 12 See Marks, “Maus and Bitburg.” 13 One striking and moving photograph included within MetaMaus is of Anja and Vladek in 1946, posing with this framed photograph of Richieu, as though the entire family of three is having their picture taken.

Anja’s elbow—she looks distracted and sad, while Vladek holds her and looks adoringly at her—touches the frame, as if establishing a bodily connection ( MetaMaus 236). 14 “Second Thoughts on the Memory Industry,” NYU/ New York Institute of the Humanities symposium. May 7, 2011. 15 See Chute, “‘The Shadow of a Past Time.’” 16 One other loosely sequential form visually representing Auschwitz could possibly be the space of the museum. See Landsberg. 17 See Hirsch 2004 for an analysis of visual encounters of recognition. 18 See “Drawing the Holocaust” in The New York Review of Books online for standards an excerpt of my interview with Spiegelman that deals specifically with survivor (and non-survivor) art. 19 Another striking example of cartoon drawing of the camps is the Essay on Discrimination Against the LGBT in Malaysia, 1942 booklet “Mickey in Gurs,” by prisoner Horst Rosenthal (he died the same year in Auschwitz). See MetaMaus 138. 20 Ravensbruck , Ukrainian, artist unknown, 1946.

Auschwitz: Album of standards A Political Prisoner , Ukrainian, by Against the LGBT Community Paladij Osynka, 1946. Spiegelman very specifically classifies these pamphlets as part of his mother’s domain in presenting them on the DVD as “Anja’s Bookshelf.” Anja Spiegelman was formative for his artistry in many ways, including in her role as the owner and saver of the small-press pamphlets she transported from Europe, and in her role drawing collaboratively with her young son through the “Scribble game” (see Portrait ). Vladek’s second wife (and Maus character) Mala Spiegelman translated several of the pamphlets that appeared in standards Polish for in Malaysia Spiegelman during his research for Maus . 21 There are only fifteen instances, including double-page spreads, like one of rejection letters, in which an image occupies an entire page of standards MetaMaus . This lithograph is based on a photograph of Anja and Art Spiegelman in Stockholm that appears in Essay on Discrimination MetaMaus on the facing page, at about two inches high (40). The lithograph shares the composition of the photograph, except for a cat hanging (lynched?) from a tree branch behind Anja and Art. The lithograph image does not seem to imply the adult mother in nets standards the foreground has directly physically murdered the Nazi cat; rather, the mere existence of definition her three-year-old son holding her hand in a snowsuit is tantamount to murdering—enacting revenge on—the cat standing in for Nazism. 22 For a recent essay on the nature of archives and Nazi official and nets, private recordkeeping, see Farmer; for a take on the effect of Nazi documentation as seen in parliamentary Berlin’s new “Topography of Terror” Center, see Malamud. 23 By stand-alone I mean not embedded in standards another previously circulating work, as in the two photographs that are part of the reprinted story “Mein Kampf” that opens an early section of the weather, book.

The first four photographs to nets appear in the book are these of Art (1956) and his son Dash (1995), on page 13, and Anja’s Polish passport (1946) and Vladek’s U.S. naturalization application (1951), on Isabella d' Este: Woman, page 16, followed by nets standards the first non-circulating, non-previously contextualized photograph, Anja and Vladek kissing at Art’s bar mitzvah (1961), on page 21. 24 Art and I sometimes disagreed on the weight that should be given to the different elements; I was much more comfortable with swaths of text whereas Art pushed me to see the importance of visual anchors. This dynamic was instructive in that its tensions are actually parallel to the basic word and image tensions of the form of Child comics. 25 Thank you to Carmen Merport for her insights about this tension. Although sometimes the graphics crush down the prose on the page, sometimes the images seem to nets standards surge up from the bottom of the page, what I think of as a crushing upwards . Courtier Definition! This is evident in a sequence in which Spiegelman and I discuss Nazi propaganda—a rich archive, for sure, that has a forceful visual presence in the book—and a poster for nets standards an anti-Semitic film featuring the Isabella d' Este: Great Renaissance, leering face of a swarthy, pointy-eared, kippa-wearing Jew seems to push up on standards, a tiny top-edge illustration by Spiegelman of cockroach Gregor Samsa, squeezing out prose and allowing for only a few lines of type in between iterations of dehumanization (114). 26 Page 22, in which a draft from Maus opens the examples, page in the top left while a sentence jumps from page 21 to 22 below it, is standards, one example among many. 27 Another example, involving family photographs, is 32-33. 28 The Spiegelman character says to his therapist Paul Pavel: “Like Samuel Beckett once said, ‘Every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and nothingness’” ( Complete Maus 205). 29 Spiegelman expands on this in conversation with me in a YouTube clip posted by the 92nd St. Matters! Y (October 6, 2011). 30 In “Archival Bodies,” Hoffman suggests of the notion of an nets archival unconscious : “the archival unconscious is not so much a place, or a preexisting set of meanings, but rather the function of an interactive process, in which something comes into being” (27).

The interactive process here would be constituted in the relation between the psychic life of imagined and remembered histories and the process of visualizing, or “materializing” them. 31 Silverblatt 33; MetaMaus 166. 32 Bechdel’s Fun Home explicitly takes on the language of the Greek “artificer” and suggests the cartoonist as artificer. 33 See Chute, “’In the Shadow of a Past Time’” (also included on the MetaMaus DVD) for one view of Maus and its ordering of information. 34 See 2008’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young… and MetaMaus 38 for comics panels and suitcases, and Portrait as an example of panels as boxes of memory. This notion first found expression in on d' Este: of the Spiegelman’s experimental piece “Some Boxes for the Salvation Army” (1976). 35 This exchange reminds me of nets standards Vladek’s comment to courtier definition Art: “All such things from the war, I tried to put out from my mind once for all… until you rebuild me all this from your questions” ( Complete Maus 258). Bechdel, Alison.

2006. Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Chute, Hillary. 2005. “Literal Forms: Narrative Structures in standards Maus ,” Indy Magazine (March). Online. -------. 2006. “The Shadow of a Past Time: History and definition, Graphic Representation in.

Maus .” Twentieth-Century Literature 52.2 (Summer): 199-230. Cvetkovich, Ann. 2008. “Drawing the Archive in Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home .” WSQ: Women’s Studies Quarterly 36: 1 2 (Spring/Summer 2008): 111-128. Farmer, Sarah. 2010. Standards! “Going Visual: Holocaust Representation and Historical Method,” American History Review (February): 115-122. Gardner, Jared. Essay On Discrimination Against! 2006. “Archives, Collectors, and standards, the New Media Work of Comics.” Mfs: Modern Fiction Studies . Special issue on Graphic Narrative, ed.

Hillary Chute and Marianne DeKoven. 52.4 (Winter): 787-806. Weather Mood! Print. Hirsch, Marianne. 2004. “Collateral Damage.” Editor’s Column. PMLA 119.5 (Oct.): 1209-15. --------. Nets! 1997. Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory . Cambridge: Harvard UP. Hoffman, Anne Golomb. Definition! 2009. “Archival Bodies.” American Imago 66.1 (Spring): 5-40.

Iadonisi, Rick. 1994. “Bleeding History and Owning His [Father’s] Story: Maus and standards, Collaborative Autobiography.” CEA Critic 57.1 (Fall): 41-56. Mood! Print. Landsberg, Alison. 1997. Nets Standards! “America, the Holocaust, and the Mass Culture of Memory.” New German Critique (Spring/Summer): 63-86. Liss, Andrea. When Weather! 1998. Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Malamud, Randy. 2011. “Meticulously Evil: Nazi Efficiencies Documented in Topography of Terror.” Chronicle of Higher Education , April 22, Vol. 57, Issue 33. Accessed March 14, 2012. Marks, Clifford J. 2002. “Maus and Bitburg.” The Midwest Quarterly : 298-313.

Redniss, Lauren. 2010. Radioactive: Marie and Pierre Curie: A Story of Love and Fallout . New York: HarperCollins. Rohy, Valerie. 2010. “In The Queer Archive: Fun Home .” GLQ 16.3: 341-361. Silverblatt, Michael. Nets! 1995. Courtier Definition! “The Cultural Relief of Art Spiegelman.” Tampa Review 5: 31-36.

Spiegelman, Art. Standards! 2011. The Complete Maus (anniversary edition). New York: Pantheon. ------. 1994. The Complete Maus . CD-ROM. New York: Voyager Company. ------. 1998. From Maus to Now to definition Maus to standards Now . Essay Isabella! Palermo: La Centrale dell’Arte.

------. 1977. “Introduction.” Breakdowns . Nets Standards! New York: Belier Press. ------. 2011. The Complete Maus : Maus I: My Father Bleeds History, Maus II: And Here My Troubles Began . New York: Pantheon. ------.

2011. On Discrimination The LGBT In Malaysia! MetaMaus. Assoc. Ed. Hillary Chute. New York: Pantheon. ------. 2008. Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! . In Breakdowns (reissue). New York: Pantheon. ------.

1976. “Some Boxes For the Salvation Army.” Arcade #5. San Francisco: Print Mint. Spiegelman, Art, and standards, Hillary Chute. Isabella D' Este: Great! 2011. “Drawing the standards, Holocaust.” NYRblog: New York Review of Books online. Definition! October 21. Accessed January 4, 2012. Standards!

Spiegelman, Art, and Hillary Chute at the 92nd St. Y. Parliamentary Examples! October 6, 2011. YouTube. Images are from MetaMaus by Art Spiegelman. © 2011 by Art Spiegelman, used by permission of Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc., and The Wylie Agency LLC. Marianne Hirsch and standards, Diana Taylor. Volume 9 | Issues 1 and 2 | Summer 2012. Olga Rodriguez Ulloa.

Marianne Hirsch and Leo Spitzer. Andy Bichlbaum and Marcial Godoy-Anativia. Mary Marshall Clark. A SENSORIAL ARCHIVE OF THE COLOMBIAN CONFLICT. Jimena Lara Estrada. Jennifer Flores Sternad. Milagros de la Torre. Tamara Lea Spira. Vivian Martinez Tabares. Aravind Enrique Adyanthaya.


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